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A Global Brief on Hypertension, Coursework Example

Pages: 5

Words: 1400

Coursework

The adoption of tuberculosis screening programs is an important step towards the accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment of patients with TB; therefore, the article addresses the parameters of this process and its impact on migration-associated TB and how programs address this process, using a descriptive study method (Alvarez et.al, 2011). A number of recommendations are made within the article, including greater efficiency in TB screening programs from one country to the next, as well as an opportunity to utilize prior evidence in developing and expanding these programs to provide greater benefits for their users (Alvarez et.al, 2011). Furthermore, greater consistency among programs is required, along with the recognition of common problems in order to develop viable solutions must be recognized (Alvarez et.al, 2011). Based upon the evidence described in the article, these recommendations are largely justified and practical, given the significance of TB screening and its overall impact on patients across different nations who face a higher risk of the disease.

Based upon the evidence in the article, migrant screenings are essential to the identification of new disease states in larger groups of patients; however, the use of the chest radiograph is not the preferred method due to its lack of accuracy, thereby increasing the number of false positive results (Alvarez et.al, 2011). It is expected that a population-based approach to TB screening is the preferred method, based upon the transfer of migrant populations from one country to another and the subsequent risk to patients in this regard. This is necessary because various populations bring about varying degrees of risk that are often grounded in country-based statistics. As a result, the use of the most accurate screening methods on a more consistent basis in countries with a higher level of risk will support a lasting yet timely approach to the diagnosis and treatment of TB, particularly for patients whose cases are more severe and require urgent attention.

Influenza continues to pose a threat to many different age and population groups, depending on individual level of risk and other factors. When flu season is active, there is a much greater risk of contracting the flu; therefore, it must be addressed in a timely manner with a cohesive response in order to be successful in treating the condition and in the prevention of a large-scale epidemic. When influenza outbreaks occur during designated periods, they have a significant impact on a number of populations, including children and older adults who are highly vulnerable to health risks for specific reasons. In using the epidemiologic triangle, the agent, or vector, is the strain of virus which primarily causes influenza, the host is the individual who is affected by the virus, and the environment includes any number of factors that contribute to influenza risk, such as weather, temperature, prior illness, chronic disease, and exposure to other persons with the virus (CDC). It is necessary to evaluate different vector types in addressing different forms of influenza, some of which are more critical in nature than others. This reflects a need to further evaluate the conditions under which vectors (agents) cause influenza in exposed patients.

The risk of influenza is ongoing and peaks at different periods throughout a calendar year; therefore, a lack of preventive measures plays a role in individual risk. However, other factors must also be considered, such as a lack of vaccination for vulnerable patients and ongoing exposure to infected persons without the proper precautionary measures in place. These concerns have been influential in shaping the response to influenza in recent years and continue to create new challenges for investigators in this area. In addition, the prevention of influenza on a larger scale requires the increased use of vaccinations to protect those at the highest level of risk, along with education to enable individuals to take additional precautionary measures to prevent the disease over time.

Patients with hypertension face a high level of risk that is associated with a variety of complex health conditions, including heart disease and stroke, among others. Therefore, hypertension must be monitored and regulated on a continuous basis as a means of preventing further risk or harm to patients. For younger women, hypertension may contribute to any number of serious health risks that if left untreated may lead to fatal consequences; therefore, the disease must be diagnosed and monitored as early as possible, and also potentially reversed to improve health and wellbeing (World Health Organization, 2015). The risks of hypertension are significant for long-term health; therefore, the adoption of a self-regulation model may be effective in addressing some of the challenges of the disease and its overall impact on patient outcomes (Clark, Gong, & Kaciroti, 2014). When individuals are able to control their activities related to diet and exercise, it is possible to minimize and/or potentially reverse the symptoms and complications of the disease over time; therefore, the self-regulatory approach may contribute to improved health and wellbeing in some instances (Clark et.al, 2014). Women who are self-disciplined are likely to perform the actions that will facilitate a healthier lifestyle and potentially reduce the risks related to hypertension over time.

Nonetheless, patients with hypertension may find it difficult to improve their self-discipline, thereby increasing the burden to healthcare providers who treat these patients. It is necessary to develop a strategic approach that will have positive and lasting benefits and serve as an incentive for patients to be proactive in increasing their own self-discipline and self-awareness regarding diet, exercise, and general lifestyle management. This will facilitate a positive response to personal health and support improved management of hypertension and other conditions that will have a positive and lasting impact on health and wellbeing for this group.

After an earthquake has taken place, there are likely to be a myriad of serious health concerns that may have significant health-related consequences for the affected populations. Those who are particularly vulnerable to health concerns may face risks such as respiratory distress or disease, thereby increasing their overall health risk in many ways (Yamanda et.al, 2013). Patients are often at risk of respiratory distress and related disease states as a result of earthquakes due to exposure to excessive dust and pollution (Yamanda et.al, 2013). This type of disaster may pose deadly risks for these patients, and those who already experience respiratory concerns are likely to experience the greatest impact. Nonetheless, older adults may face an additional level of risk and trauma due to contaminated air and pollutants, accompanied by already poor lifestyle conditions and quality of life (Yamanda et.al, 2014).

This type of disaster is likely to have a massive impact on population health, and in one example, the elderly were most at risk of serious health issues, including respiratory disease (Yamanda et.al, 2014). In societies where an aging population is prevalent, it is likely that there will continue to be serious respiratory complications from earthquakes that include COPD and bronchial asthma (Yamanda et.al, 2014). These findings suggest that emergency care and ongoing treatment are necessary to minimize long-term complications; however, due to significant infrastructure damage, this was a next to impossible task for most patients (Yamanda et.al, 2014). In the aftermath of an earthquake, it is inevitable that those persons with chronic disease or who are exposed to serious health threats are likely to experience significant complications; therefore, this process requires an examination of the different areas which prohibit high quality and consistency in care and treatment, given the infrastructure challenges that are likely to occur. Therefore, healthcare providers must be prepared to develop strategies to minimize these concerns as best as possible, in spite of the limitations that exist.

References

Alvarez, G. G., Gushulak, B., Rumman, K. A., Altpeter, E., Chemtob, D., Douglas, P., … & Ellis, E. (2011). A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates. BMC Public Health,11(3). Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/3

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Lesson 1: understanding the epidemiologic triangle through infectious disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/bam/teachers/documents/epi_1_triangle.pdf

Clark, N. M., Gong, M., & Kaciroti, N. (2014). A model of self-regulation for control of chronic disease. Health Education & Behavior41(5), 499-508.

World Health Organization (WHO. (2015). A global brief on hypertension: silent killer, globa   public health crisis. Women.

Yamanda, S., Hanagama, M., Kobayashi, S., Satou, H., Tokuda, S., Niu, K., & Yanai, M. (2013). The impact of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on hospitalisation for respiratory disease in a rapidly aging society: a retrospective descriptive and cross-sectional study at the disaster base hospital in Ishinomaki. BMJ open3(1), e000865.

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