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Affirmative Action, Term Paper Example

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Introduction

Affirmative action entails the policies that are formulated to promote all individuals inclusively, where the above in one way or another does evade discrimination. Notably, there are some affirmative actions which date from the1800s, but in reality, the reinforcement of the law on affirmative action commenced in the year 1961, as a result of president Kennedy’s signing the executive order 10925 upon which the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity was established (Anderson 64). One of the obvious actions recognized by this order is the fact that many individuals have been denied the chance of securing employment, being socially active and receiving an education. Indeed, the above forms of social exclusion have disadvantaged individuals in one way or another. However, the current discrimination issues also associated with affirmative action. This is because individuals are willing to create a fully integrated society.

Affirmative action can be either set up by the government or supported by the private sector. Some of the private sectors are private universities, businesses or schools as well as labor unions. Affirmative action may be employed in cases in which individuals need admission in schools or other institution. The admission board may take into consideration the race or the social class of the applicant when taking a decision.

Discrimination is deeply rooted in America’s own history and hence, the country represents good example of how affirmative action is used in order to promote equality. For example, African American women have been discriminated ever since they were freed from slavery. In the best, the image of the African American woman was associated with that of the maid. Even today, they are not given equal job opportunities and are rarely assigned in leadership positions. Hence, they are maintained in lower employment positions. Affirmative action proved to be the best manner of promoting equality in the society. In other words, private institutions and the government act as a bridge to end the discrimination of concerned groups.

With the increased discrimination of African Americans based on race and class, the American government formulated a law that enforced affirmative action. The law was a civil act of 1964, and positively, this culminated the African Americans’ ban on employment, public accommodations, as well as labor unions (Schloredt and Brown 63). During this threshold of the civil rights movement, Martin King Luther delivered his famous speech “I have a dream”. Notably, Martin Luther aired his speech at the Lincoln Memorial grounds. Subsequently, important economic and political rights were granted to the African American minority. There were merely 200 African Americans in official positions in 1965 whereas as 1988, there were 8,936(Schloredt and Brown 61). Even though discrimination was rampant in the past, the example of Oprah Winfrey, the richest Africa-America, is a proof that things are changing to the better.

Perhaps an even more important achievement is the historical appointment of Barack Obama as President of the United States. President Obama was the pioneer of African American presidency in America under the Democratic Party. Considerably, he has a crucial precedent by being the first African American to occupy the position of the most important person in the world. During his swearing into office, many shed tears of happiness as this event represented a victory of the long oppressed African-American people. This alternatively symbolized the end of racism in America.

Rights and liberties being infringed upon

Since the US president is of African American origin, the barriers of racism have been lifted and the discrimination of African Americans is expected to come to an end, at least in what the public space is concerned. He is an image of the fight for equality of rights in America and in particular, he represents a symbol of the successful integration of African Americans in the public sphere.

Currently, it is considered that the American society is ‘just’ with minorities and this shows that the efforts to promote equal rights were successful. This is because most African-Americans are integrated in the society and enjoy the same level of protection as their White counterparts. Currently, Americans are enjoying the benefits of equity which for a long time has not been in place. In this respect, Obama’s presidency will be remembered as a turning point in the fight to end racism. Affirmative action was essential in promoting the end of discrimination of the African American minority (Morgan 125). Nowadays, African Americans are enjoying the rights and liberties imagined by Martin Luther King in his speech ‘I have a Dream’.

However, affirmative action should continue to guide the decisions of those in power since despite having been integrated in the society, African Americans and other minorities are still discriminated both in the society and in the public sphere. Since the White majority has dominated America for quite a long time, it will take time for minorities to be unanimously regarded as equals. There is still a major discrepancy between African-Americans and Whites in terms of revenue and education. Therefore, if there are any adjustments to be made, it is wise to amend in favor of African-Americans (Cini 102).

The America politics to facilitate change

In reality, American politics represent an example of equality of chances that should be followed in all areas of the society. Moreover, the affirmative action pertaining to class, gender and race discrimination should be imposed as Follows: the constitution should equalize power in a proper manner, so that all minorities will be equally entitled to the same facilities offered by the country (Levi-Faur 254). In addition, even though the constitution of the US does not exactly display the division of power, this was one on the agenda and was debated heavily. Various other branches were further divided into different branches and this ensured the equal sharing of power. Precisely, power division controls discrimination better since many branches distribute power equally.

Another determinant factor on the American politics for the determination of change is the check of balance. Despite of division and limitation of power, the US government has embraced the checks of balance. Fortunately, the checks of balance ensure that no other branch of the government will exercise more power that the other. This system is vital in initiating change that works in the same way as affirmative action.

In addition, other political aspects that are responsible in controlling the change in government of the US are civil rights. They do a great job by imposing the restriction on the US government. Here, the bill of rights is essential since it protects the right of persons by exercising government power as well as exercising law. Therefore, those that contradict this right can be thrown out, or be put under the law. This ensures the security of government branches even if they are working under the same level and duty. Thus, the above are vital features of the political features of the US government (Schiel 632). It is essential to realize the importance of Constitution that can effectively affect and make the rules of the US to be respected. Therefore, with the affirmative action as race and gender bias, the constitution is comprehensive enough to cope with the situation. Therefore, it is unwarranted for the African-Americans to worry about the modification of the current constitution since the structure is evident and clear to protect its citizens.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is mandatory to note the changes that still need to be made, and this situation can be assessed by government involvement, or the non-governmental firms. Here, one of the areas that still need to be remedied by affirmative action is the discrimination of the African American women in education, health and employment. America is  a country that set an example on how affirmative action can be used to counter the effects of historical racism and the country should continue to promote affirmative action, particularly in the public sphere, as equality in the public sphere determines positive changes in the society.

Works Cited

Anderson, Terry, The Pursuit of Fairness: A history of affirmative Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Armstrong, Kenneth A. Governing Social Inclusion: The Law And Politics of Eu Co-ordination. London: Oxford University Press, 2008.Print.

Cini, Michelle. European Union Politics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Levi-Faur, David. Handbook on the Politics of Regulation.New York, NY: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012.Print.

Morgan, Bronwen. Social Citizenship in the Shadow of Competition: The Bureaucratic Politics of Regulatory Justification. Chicago: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009.Print.

Schiel, Jerome. Social Welfare Policy: Regulation and Resistance Among People of Color. New York, NY: SAGE. 2007.Print.

Schloredt, Valerie and Brown, Pam. Martin Luther King: Civil Rights Pioneer. 2003. Gale.

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