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# Civil Engineering, Coursework Example

Pages: 3

Words: 885

Coursework

Abstract

The construction practice had been composed.  In addition, there is a discussion regarding the macro, micro and automatic costing functions.  The micro and macro function has been reviewed in the construction practice.  The benefits of automatic costing had been reviewed in the discussion.  The perspectives of Liu et al. (2012), Oh et al. (2015) and Yum (2007) were accessed.

Construction Practice

Surveyors have the capacity of assessing measurements for curves which have brief radius that are conventionally less than the length of one tape.  As the radios becomes bigger, the application of measuring tapes becomes impractical.  In order to assess the number of stations required in the curve that spans from Tto T2.  In order to assess the distance, the following must be done.  T1 to Station (A) = T2 to station A.  Therefore, the number of chainage stations required would be 20.  The number of chainage stations is considering a 25 m distance between stations.

The number of meters that would require excavation transport and deposit are 30. 35 m3.  This amount is assuming that the roadway is 1-meter-deep and 5 meters wide.

In order to assess the price of the pavement for 1. 0 km section of road section which includes the cutting and filling tasks.  Once again taking the assumption that the roadway is 5 meters wide and 1-meter-deep, the amount of cubic meters is 5000m3.

 Activity Cost (£ per m3) Number of m3 Cost (£) Excavation 0.65 5000 3250 Deposition of Fill 0.62 5000 3100 Reclaimed Quarry Waste Fill 10.01 5000 50,000 Compaction of Granular Fill 0.26 5000 1,300 Sub Base 150 mm thick sand 2.60 5000 13,000 Sub Base 150 mm thick gravel 3.55 5000 17,750 Sub Base 150 mm thick hardcore 3.23 5000 16, 150 Sub Base 150 mm thick concrete grade 20/20 10.23 5000 51,150 Precast Concrete Paving Blocks 16.32 5000 81,600 Total Materials 237,300

A reinforced in- situ retaining wall fabricated from concrete with a height of 6 m would have a cost of £320 x 2 x 1000 = £640,000.  The cost of the rock gabions is £61 per square meter.  The number of square meters needed would be 74,000.  The total cost for the rock gabions would be £4,514,000.  The total cost of the retaining wall for both sides of the pavement surface would be £5,154,000.  The cost of labor and equipment was not included in the estimate.

Discussion

It has been determined that the function of estimating has two significant participations in the activities of costing, planning and design.  The comprehensive value of the automatic estimating regarding the implication of the planning which is based on models is that the expenses associated with a project can be created upon assignment of the project.  These characteristics noticed reduced the expenses incurred in the preparation of estimates.  In addition, the delivery of the estimates becomes more timely while decreasing the stresses on the existing projects.  As a result of these accruals, the choosing of design options as the most optimal solution has the capacity of being concluded quickly and in an objective manner.  As a result, the quality of each of the iterations of the planning and costing function are improved (Liu et al., 2012).

Notwithstanding, the automatic estimating function can be applied for the macro level estimating, it does not have the capacity of aggregating substantial advantage in comparison with the processes which are currently applied.  Considering that the life cycles of projects may be extensively spaced regarding the construction of roadways, any of the calibrating opportunities subsequent to the calibrating for quality and expenses becomes lost.  Nevertheless, macro estimating continues to be a requisite for the costing and approval processes in the designs which are founded upon models (Oh et al., 2015).

In addition, it has been demonstrated that in regards to the perspective of information theory, the planning and costing activities which are founded on models have the capacity of enhancing the benefit ratio regarding the precision of the estimates.  The research has demonstrated that the model based on costing and design enhances the quality of the conjunctive effect of affecting results and the provision of timely information.  This is considering that the information theory perspective has the outcome of decreasing the temporal interval required between estimates (Yum, 2007).

Furthermore, the costing and design practice incorporates an extensive sequence which has the intention of developing a comprehensive result.  As the enhcencxements are produced at each of the points of the decision making process, the updates during each of the points of the decision making points is an enhancement over the previously used techniques (Yum, 2007).

Conclusion

In the construction practice, micro level and macro level costing activities had been reviewed.  The difference between these activities and the automatic costing activities are the time consumed in the composition.  The micro level costing activity was an effective exercise for the graduate engineer.  The exercise has proved to be an effective practice in construction costing.

References

Liu, M., Rasdorf, W. Hummer, J., Hollar, D. & Parish, S.  (2012). Preliminary engineering cost strategy assessment for roadway projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, 29(2):150- 157.

Oh, E., Naderpajouh, N, Hastak, M & Gokhale, S. (2015). Integration of the construction  knowledge and expertise in front end planning. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 10(1061).04015067.

Yum, K. K. (2007). Model based estimating system for civil concrete structures. Cooperative  Research Centre for Construction Innovation

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### Coursework

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