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Controlling Cases, Coursework Example

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Coursework

“By controlling cases, we can control the effects of the factors rather than the factors of interest.” This statement means that it is possible to control the influence of factors and what they cause rather than monitoring the actual elements. For example, smoking causes cancer. While comparing the smoking and non-smoking cases, we will be able to control cancer diseases as the effect rather than smoking as a factor.

The ecological fallacy is an error in the discussion that occurs when the conclusion is made by analyzing data from only one group. For example, examine the exam scores of one particular classroom and find that it has the highest average in the district. Then after meeting a girl from that class and conclude that she must be very bright just because she is from that class.

The individualistic fallacy occurs when people are strictly divided into two groups. For example, while discussing the issue of racism in society, there is a tendency of categorizing everyone into two that is, “racists” or “non-racists.” This fallacy assumes that there are no in-between individuals.

4.A limited government has legalized power and forces that are restricted by enumerated and delegated authorities. Similarly applies to a constitutional government, which is limited and restricted by particular principles and actions stated in the constitution.

Left-wing opinions are characterized by underscoring on the provision of social equality, freedom, and fraternity and opposition to social hierarchy.

Right-wing typical opinions are based on the idea of hierarchy, authority, order, conservation of the traditional practices, and nationalism.

Liberal is used to refer to individuals who are forward-looking and welcome the new way of doing things and are flexible to changes.

In Europe, the same term has been used to refer to a person whose policies are soft, does not care about the taxpayers, and is against the federal government.

5.Majoritarian Democracy is a system of government that operates guided by the principle which states that “straight majority rule.” The principle gears the governmental system to use the accessible majority to hasten political decision-making, mostly during a national election.

Consensus Democracy is carefully designed to delay the decisions made by the majority to avoid quick and easy decision making by majority voters or the elected representatives. This system is keen on power balancing among the three-arm of the government.

6.In a typical parliamentary system, a national election is carried out, and the voters elect their Members of Parliament. The Members of Parliament from the party with the majority number are responsible for voting for their majority leader. After that, The president appoints the majority leader to be the Prime Minister.

7. Bicameralism is a system of government where there are two houses of the legislature. The chamber is occupied by the representative members elected by voters to represent them in the passing of bills and policies. The members of the two houses are there to check and balance the presidential power and provide scrutiny to the action of the national government.

The factors that make bicameral incongruence are:

Electoral system

Terms of office

Partisan of the majority party

Yes, reliable and more resourceful committees make the legislature more critical.  This is because most democratic legislatures rely on committees to carry out all their activities. The mandate of the communities is to examine scrutinizes the functions of the legislature.

8.Popularity Electoral Systems – The seat is awarded to the candidate who acquires the most votes in the election. One does not have to get the 50+1 of the votes to win. This is, therefore, not a proportional formula.

Majority Electoral Systems – The candidates need to gather a majority of votes to win the seat. This method is, therefore, is more proportionate.

Proportional Representation – Party List Systems – The parties are voted for by the parties as opposed to the candidates. The party then determines the individual who will take the seat. This formula is proportionate.

Proportional Representation – Singe Transferable Vote – The voters rank the candidates, and then a formula is used to determine the number of votes a candidate must gather to win. This is a proportionate electoral formula.

9.In concentrated and small group interests, there is more cohesion in decision making and sharing of profit. The engagement and consultation are faster and, therefore, very effective. On the contrary, the dispersed interest faces problems while communicating airing the ideas.

Parallelism is the political view that political decisions are made in the governmental framework, but many private groups with resources influence the government.

Corporatism is a political view that suggests that corporate groups in society control the government.

Tripartite Pact is an agreement by Italy, Germany, and Japan to deter the United States from entering World War II. Tripartite Pact is seen in corporatism.

10.Electoral system- The electoral formula used to distribute political seats in the government will determine whether there will be a multiparty or one-party system. 

The intensity of political conflict – The number of parties will be determined by the magnitude of politics in an individual nation.

System of government- Dictatorial system of government will limit the number of parties.

Duverger’s law states that the plurality election will support a party system with only two parties.

During the election, the voters are psychologically prepared that if the votes for the minority parties are eventually going to be wasted and, therefore, the vote for the top two parties.

11.Judicial review is the mandate and court power to examine and scrutinize the functions of the executive, legislative, and government administrators to review if their actions are constitutional. 

Judicial review is seen in consensus. The consensus system is keen and careful about any haste decision made by an arm of the government.

12.A federal government system devolves some of its power from the federal government to local and state governments.

The Unitary System of Government is a sovereign state governed as one entity by the central government.

Many federal systems face different challenges and obstacles like weak and unstable political systems that cannot afford decentralization.

Federalism is based on the compound majoritarianism, and therefore it is more representative.

Federalism makes an effort to accommodate the modern democracy.

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