Educational Diabetes Program, Term Paper Example
Words: 2567Term Paper
Purpose : To educate, inform and empower members of the communities as well as those in the nationally who are affected with the disease or at risk to prevent, reduce, and manage the disorder so that they can live healthy lifestyles, and help to reduce the mortality rate in the country.
The educational project serves to present an innovative approach targeting the chronic disease diabetes affecting approximately 40 million Americans as well as those who are potentially at risk, by informing, training, and empowering them with the requisite tools to effect the control and management necessary to live healthy lifestyles.
In terms of the methodology, the program will encompass the use of lectures, case studies, interactivity, bottom up participative sessions at physical locations as well as online, as experts in endocrinology, diabetology, diabetic nursing, health management, motivational management, psychology, dietetics, and medical social work transmit information packaged in patient-friendly formats necessary to achieve the desired goals and objectives during each six week period.
Evaluations will be conducted to enable appropriate fine tuning to be done to improve the quality of delivery of presentations to participants who will be recruited from referrals from all AMA and other medical facilities, as well as by aggressive advertizing and marketing programs.
Participants at the physical locations as well as those online will rewarded with certificate of recognition and encouraged to become care givers where appropriate so that the information will contribute to synergistic results in the external environment.
Finally, it is hoped the successful outcomes from this pilot project will serve to strengthen the corporate strategy of the institution in its drive to use education as a tool to reduce the impact of diabetes on the population from the local, community and national perspectives.
The purpose of the project is to educate and instruct diabetic and potentially diabetic individuals in diverse communities how to prevent, minimize, and manage the disease by means of instructionally sound, aesthetically-pleasing, and easy to find and use programs that will empower them to live healthy lifestyles (TopicsEducation, 2011).
This project may be of significance globally according to Palacio (2011), because the World Health Organization has estimate that 346 million people globally are living with diabetes, most of them are in low and middle income areas, and if the trend continues, the figure will double by 2030.
Success in the project will be achieved through developing appropriate methodology, applying the latest teaching techniques, using a curriculum that student friendly, implementing interactive technology, securing the services of diverse experts, aggressive advertizing and marketing strategies, use of referrals from wide ranging medical institutions, ideal teacher to student ratio, and effective evaluations process that enable process refinements.
The program will seek the input of experts like endocrinology, diabetology, nutrition, health management, psychology, diabetes nurse education, and medical social work in terms of curriculum development and teaching (Boston Children Hospital, 2011).
Students that are successful the in the program will be honored with certificate of recognition and encouraged to become are care givers in their communities, so that the strategy by the institution of empowering participants against the diseases through educations can accelerate synergistically, and reduce the mortality rate in the country.
Diabetes is a lifelong disease caused by the high levels of sugar in the blood, due to too little insulin, resistance to, it or a combination of both factors in the body of any individual affected by it, according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011). Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas for the sole purpose of controlling blood sugar, but the disease Diabetes cannot be understood without an understanding of the digestion process
In this process according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011), ingested food in the stomach is broken down and used for energy. Glucose produced from the process as a type sugar and enters the blood stream, while the pancreas which is the manufacturers of insulin, moves it into the blood stream to remove the glucose for storage in muscles, fat locations, as well as in the liver and cells for storage as fuel. Diabetic patients are those found with high levels of sugar in the blood as a result of their bodies’ inability to move the sugar into storage as fast as they are manufactured (ADS Medical Dictionary, 2011).
The inability of these individuals systems to perform this vital function may be due to the pancreas being unable to manufacture the insulin, cells in the body being resistant to the hormone or a combination of both activities according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011).
Types of Diabetes
There are three types of diabetes, and they are Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes. Type I can occur at any age, according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011), but is commonly found in children, teens and young adults whose bodies makes little or no insulin and have to be injected on a daily basis.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on the other hand normally affects people in adulthood that may be obese and have been diagnosed with the disease, according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011). The disease according to Khardon (2011), comprise an array of dysfunctions as a result of combinations of resistances to insulin actions and inadequate insulin secretions.
These disorders are characterize by hypoglycemia and associated micro vascular macro vascular and neuropathic complicationsaccording to Khardon (2011) and unlike Type 1 patients are absolutely dependent on insulin for the rest of their lives, in order to limit the development of complications and to effectively manage the disease when it threatens.
Gestational Diabetes occurs to pregnant mothers who develop high blood sugar during the process of their babies’ development.
According to the American Diabetes Association (2011), a diagnosis of gestational diabetes does not mean that the mother had diabetes before conception or that she will have the disease after giving birth
Symptoms of Diabetes
The symptoms that characterize Diabetes are blurry visions, excessive thirsts, fatigue, frequent urinations, and hunger and weight loss, according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011).
However, Type 2 Diabetes develops slowly with no visible symptoms, while Type 1 victims manifest the symptoms more readily over a shorter period of time even before being diagnosed according to ADH Medical Dictionary (2011).
Diabetes Insipidus is a disorder of the anti diuretic hormone (ADH), which helps the kidney and the body conserve the amount water and are of two types, namely Central Diabetes Insipidus and Naphrogenic Diabetes, according to Boston Children Hospital (2011).
Central Diabetes Insipidus is the most common form of the two, and occur as a result of the insufficient production of or secretion of ADH, due to the existence of problems in the brain and central nervous system, while Naphrogenic Diabetes is a condition that patient develops when their kidneys are unable to respond to the normal levels of ADH, according Boston Children Hospital (2011).
The kidneys’ output of urine is controlled by the ADH, which is secreted by the pituitary gland, by decreasing the amount which prevents dehydration.
The disease therefore denies the body access to ADH and cause excessive thirst and production of diluted urine.
Test and Diagnosis
The American Diabetes Association, European Association for the study of Diabetes and the International Diabetics Federation in 2009 recommends Type 1 Diabetes be tested using GlycatedHemoglobin, according to Mayo Clinic Staff (2011). Glycated Hemoglobin Test measures the average blood sugar level over three months, and works by determining the percentage of blood sugar attached to the hemoglobin, which is the oxygen carrying protein molecule in the red blood cells (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).
According to Mayo Clinic Staff (2011), the higher the blood sugar level, the greater the amount of hemoglobin that will be attached to the sugar, and individuals with two consecutive AIC readings above 6.5% will be diagnosed with diabetes, while results between 5.7% and 6.4% identifies patients with a pre-diabetic condition which means they are at high risk in developing the disease.
Diabetes can also be tested using Random Blood Sugar Test, which men applied will indicate the presence of the disease when the readings are at 200mg/dl or more. This will also be accompanied by the patient experiencing frequent urinations and extreme thirst. Pre-diabetic conditions on the other hand are diagnosed when the reading falls between 140 mg/.dl and 199mg/dl according to Mayo Clinic Staff (2011).
Fasting Blood Sugar Test, when applied after overnight fast and produces a reading of 100mg/dl or less indicates normality, but results between 100mg/dl and 125mg/dl are those of patients with having pre-diabetic conditions, as compared to the diabetic participants whose readings will be in the 126mg/dl and upward range, according to Mayo Clinic Staff (2011).
Type 1 Diabetes is confirmed by test for the presence of auto antibodies as well as ketones which are byproducts of the breakdown of fat. Additionally, blood and urine test for cholesterol levels, thyroid function, liver and kidney functions, as well as test for Celia diseases has to be done to confirm the presence of the disease as well as to differentiate it from Type 1disease (Mayo Clinic Staff (2011).
Tips for Care Givers
Support can be given to family members and friends diagnosed with diabetes, according to Davidson and Moreland (2011), by voicing support, learning about diabetes, express ones feelings to those affected, allowing victims to accept responsibility for managing their disorders, take physical exercises together, choose healthy foods, persistently show considerations and seek external sources for assistance.
Treatment for Diabetes
There no cure for diabetes according to ADM Medical Dictionary (2011), but with the appropriate diet and exercises as well as medications, the disease can be treated so that the symptoms can remain dormant, and the patients able to pursue healthy lifestyles.
Individuals affected with Diabetes over the years and not being able to successfully manage it will have serious problems including,
- Eye problems due to sensitivity towards light and eventual blindness
- Feet and skin that will develop into sores and infections ,with even amputations to extend lives
- Difficulty in controlling cholesterol levels and blood sugar. Heart attacks are likely
- The nerves in the body can become damaged causing pain, tingling and a loss of feeling
- Poor digestion, weakness in the body and difficulty in erections among men
- Malfunctioning of the kidneys leading to failures and even death (ADM Medical Dictionary, 2011).
This technique have multiple benefits according to Yee (2005), like allowing the instructors to easily and quickly assess if students have mastered the material, the process for measuring students understanding is practiced by use of assessments, and the assessment is the driver of the interactivity and bring several other benefits with it in the process.
The technique according to Yee (2005), transform students from the passivity of merely listening to lectures to become actively engaged and attentive, which are the key requirements for anyone desirous of learning about any topic of interest.
The project will encompass a teaching/lecture methodology that will include the use of case studies, group discussions, clear presentations of teaching objectives for each section and topics, at least 50% interactions, class evaluations, low teacher to student ratio, bottom up participative styles to enhance the learning capability of students (Euteach Teaching Guide, 2011).
Access to the material that constitutes the curriculum is made available at chosen physical locations as well as online, where the participants can study the contents of each section and take the relevant tests. Scores in excess of 90% grants participants entry to each section and on completion they are congratulated, awarded certificates of recognition and encouraged to become Care givers.
The process will involve the useof teaching experts in endocrinology, diabetology, health management, psychology, nutrition, motivation, and care giving. Participants will be recruited through referrals from all medical institutions in each locale, as well as through aggressive advertising and promotional programs in the media as well as on websites.
Evaluations at the end of each session will serve to assess the effectiveness of this educational diabetes program as well as to facilitate adjustment of aspects that will enable the institution to empower participants through education to fight this disease through control management, good nutrition and appropriate exercises.
Annually the project will be assessed to see the level of impact made on the society in terms of a cost benefit analysis, and reports submitted to allow decisions made as to how future strategies will be implemented.
The Program combines the inputs of teaching experts in endocrinology, diabetology, diabetes trained nurses, dietitians, motivational speakers, medical social workers to manage the medical nutritional and psychosocial needs of children and adolescent with all forms of disease (Boston Children Hospital, 2011).
The contribution of these personnel will be used to develop a teaching curriculum that will include the definition and types of diabetes, causes of diabetes, test and diagnosis, management of the disease,prognosis of diabetes, the importance of nutrition and taking, exercise, care giving and motivational sessions.
Teaching sessions shall consist of clear presentation of teaching objectives at the start of all sessions physically or online, at least 50% interaction, the use of case studies to reinforce concepts and understanding, participative strategies like group discussions, low teacher to student ratios and oral as well as written evaluations at the end of each presentation (Euteach Teaching Guide, 2011).
Participants recruited through referrals from diverse private and public medical institutions, as well as through the advertising and promotional programs,will be required to attend onsite sessions for six weeks and shall be provided with refreshment and stipends to cover transportation cost at the end of the course, while those online will be rewarded with certificates of recognition being mailed to them.
Formal evaluations conducted at the end of each session will be used to determine if the teaching objectives have been met, and only score exceeding 90% in the multiple choice tests will permit participants to move to the next level of the program.
The educational program can be successful if each aspect of the package is carefully integrated, to ensure all the needs of diabetic patients are addressed, so that participants can be empowered educationally to fight this disease from all perspectives.
Significant importance should be attached to the evaluations at the end of each session, due to the impact that adjustments can make on the mass appeal in communities as well as on the internet.
Leadership in the program and the acceptance that an educational program is a key weapon to fight that threat that diabetes posed to the health of the nation as well as reduce the cost of providing medical services annually, especially from an institutional perspective, are also vital to the advancement of the program.
The innovativeness of the program, its availability on the internet, and the growth potential for care givers will help to drive its acceptability in other areas of the country, and generate the synergy necessary to achieve success in the fight to help individuals and families to fight the disease and be able to live healthier lives in the future.
American Diabetes Association (2011). Gestational Diabetes <http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/?utm_source=Homepage&utm_medium=ContentPage&utm_content=gestational&utm_campaign=TDT> Accessed on 10/04/11
ADM Medical Encyclopedia (2011). Diabetes <www.ncbi.nim.nia.gov/pubmedhealth/pmh0002194> , Accessed 10/01/11
Boston Children Hospital (2011). Diabetes Insipidus Disease Information Overview <www.childrenhospital.org/az/site709/mainpage5709po.html> , Accessed on 10/01/11
Davidson, N.K., Moreland, P., (2011). Tips for Diabetes Caregivers Living with Diabetes Blog <www.mayoclinic.com/health> , Accessed on 10/01/11
Euteach Teaching Guide (2011) A Quick Guide to Teaching Methodology <www.euteach.com/euteach-home/euteach_curriculum_euteach_planning/teach.guide> , Accessed on 10/02/11
Khardon, R., (2011). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Medscape <www.medscape.com/articles/117853-overview> , Accessed on 10/01/11
Mayo Clinic Staff (2011). Type 1 Diabetes Health Information Mayo Clinic <www.mayoclinic.com> , Accessed on 10/03/11
Palacio, Z. (2011). Doctors Say Millions Will Suffer World Wide From Diabetes Health<http://www.voanews.com/english/news/health/Doctors-Say-Millions-Worldwide-Suffer-From-Diabetes-131100063.html> , Accessed on 10/05/11
Topics Education (2011). Topics Education Rubric –How we create and evaluate our clients education program <www.topicseducation.com/pdf/terubriccoursedesign/assessment> , Accessed on 10/01/11
Yee, K. (2005). Interactive Techniques University of Central Florida <www.fctl.ucf/teaching/course/content/101-tips.pdf> , Accessed on 10/01/11
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