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Empathy Project, Term Paper Example

Pages: 1

Words: 2053

Term Paper

Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic disease that tops in prevalence in most countries and its current status has gone up to epidemic levels. A wide array of complications is associated with this condition such as blindness, coronary artery, amputations, stroke, renal failure and many more. The consequences of diabetes may include disability, premature death and adverse quality of life and more specifically if the condition is not diagnosed at the right time for proper management and control. Diabetes is a major cause of concern to the victim and the family members alike and therefore all are anticipated to play pivotal role in management of the disease and offering support and quality care to the patient.

Empathy project

Step 1: the Pt condition/illness is chosen: Newly Diagnosed with Diabetes type 2

Overview/definition of identified medical condition Diabetes type 2

Type 2 diabetes is a condition/illness that occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin; that is, in proportions that makes it not to function properly, or when the cells in the  body fail to react to insulin a condition termed as insulin resistance. Most people suffer from this type as compared to type 1 diabetes.. On the outset, it should be understood that type 2 diabetes is an enduring condition. This means that the patient will in the long run require taking insulin medication, usually in the form of tablets or injection. It is common for type 2 diabetes to be coupled with obesity. Since it is more common with the elderly obesity-related diabetes is occasionally called maturity-onset.

Step 2: Obtain Professional Nursing Articles That Address the Patient Condition/Illness and Attach a Copy of This Article That You Utilized for This Aspect

Atkinson D, Murray R, & Couzos S (2008) Diabetes. In: Couzos S, Murray R, eds. Aboriginal   primary health care: an evidence-based approach. 3rd ed. South Melbourne: Oxford     University Press: 521-574. Available at http://www.jcu.edu.au/smd/JCUPRD1_058313.html         

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (2008). Diabetes: Australian facts 2008. Canberra:   Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Available at

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.1062/full

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

The condition that exists in this type is that either the pancreas is unable to make sufficient insulin on the one hand, and/or the body is unable to suitably make use of it. It is known to occur in those that are over 40 years of age, overweight, whose family has a history of diabetes as well as those who have suffered from pregnancy gestational diabetes or have given birth to an over weight  baby. It also affects those with high blood pressure, excess cholesterol, IGT or impaired fasting glucose and those that are of Asian or South African origin (Si, Bailie, Dowden, Kennedy, Cox, O’Donoghue, Liddle, Kwedza, Connors, Thompson, Burke, Brown & Weeramanthri, 2010).

Symptoms and complications of type 2 Diabetes

Patients of type 2 diabetes may take a long time before symptoms start to appear. However these symptoms eventually show up as the sickness worsens and blood sugar levels climb. The signs and symptoms tend to appear differently to different patients and at varying ages. However the following are common: blurred vision, diminished sensation or numbness in the limbs, dry and irritable skin, recurrent bladder and vaginal contagions as well as frequent need to urinate, increased thirst and hunger, erectile dysfunction and also sluggish healing of cuts or sores and weariness. It is worth noting that people suffering from type 2 diabetes can take a long time before the disease is diagnosed until it is a fully blown case (Hoy, Davey, Sharma, Hoy, Smith, & Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, (2010).

Due to damages caused by diabetes complication patients suffering from the disease are at greater risk of developing the various defects such as blindness, kidney failure and also numbness.

Step 3: this step is just saying that the paper will receive a feedback from the faculty to point out any mistakes that needs to be addressed
(so you’ll hear from me later for this part for any mistakes which needs to be corrected)

The good thing is however that complication as a result of diabetes can be prevented, delayed, or slowed down by controlling the levels of blood glucose as close to the normal range as possible.

Etiology of condition

This refers to the study of causes mostly studied in the medical world where it becomes important to understand the origins and causes of medical conditions. Etiology is used here to provide clues into methods of treatment which might be effective.  It is frustrating both to physicians and patients when a disease has no known cause (without etiology).

“Imagine that you are the patient and have just learned that you have Diabetes, type 2. 

You are 45 years old and have to meet the needs of your family while holding down a full time job.  You are feeling totally overwhelmed with all the “things” your doctor told you to do in order to manage this disease.  Where to start?  What to do first?” 

Treatment options for medical condition, including complementary & alternative therapies

Diabetes is treated using both short-term and long-term means. Short-term goal is to lower high blood glucose levels while the long-term goals are to prevent problems associated with diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is mainly treated by exercise and diet.

Diet and Weight Control

Type 2 diabetes patients should work in consultation with the doctor, nurse, and dietitian to know the amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrates needed in their diet.

Regular Physical Activity

Exercises on a daily basis are a recommendation to reduce the chances of its incidence. Promotion of high level of physical activities while cutting down on sedentary activities offers a lasting solution and patients should be made aware of this fact. The simplest of the exercises is walking (Daniels, et al. 2002). Most types of exercise makes the heart beat faster and one breathes faster thereby helping the level of the blood sugar of a patient to decline without medication.  Also exercises involve the burning of additional calories and fat thereby reducing cholesterol. They also improve the blood circulation which in turn leads to blood pressure adjustments. They also lead to higher body energy level, less tension, and enhance the capability to overcome stress.

Medications to Treat Diabetes

This should be prescribed by the physician on examination. It should be done ideally after the other methods prove unsuccessful in contain the blood glucose at desired levels.

“Imagine you are the patient.  What are your thoughts and feelings regarding your diagnosis?  Are you experiencing any losses?  If so, what are they and how are they influencing your self esteem?  What worries do you have regarding your self care? How will your diabetes and its management effect role as mother, wife and worker?” 

Role of patient and how it effects normal functioning (alteration in individual role)

The role of the patient is that of self-care. This refers to the process of collecting statistical data by the patient in order to generate a self-report. He or she takes up some roles of the physician, nurse or the dietitian such as measuring and recording the blood sugar levels, setting up a plan for healthy eating where the patient follows a prescribed pattern, type and method of taking meals and adapting to a prescribed regime of exercise. The patient continually records the blood sugar levels with the aim of achieving a specified level and maintaining it. The result enables him or her to revise self-care approaches or seek medical attention when appropriate. However this brings with it psychological challenges that affect the normal functioning of the patient the following ways:-

Major depression and depressive symptoms: This has a prevalent rate of 20% among diabetes patients, a proportion which represents double that of the general population. Type 2 diabetes patient who apply self-screening and surveys have a higher chance of suffering major depression than similar patients who use other methods, which occurs mostly in women. The patient will be unable to work, to socialize as well as attending to self-care or to take up responsibility.

Diabetes-specific emotional distress: Patient living with type 2 diabetes are usually emotionally distressed by treatment procedures prescribed the physicians and the aspects associated with the health care team. This influence negatively to self-care which in turn negatively affects the patient’s day by day functioning thus leading to frustration as well as loss of hope.

Other comorbid conditions: These include mental health, inter alia which may inhibit self-care in patients. This may lead to a need for medical examination as an inpatient thereby making the patient be unable to attend at his or her daily roles as well as isolating them from their families and close friends who give them comfort  (Atkinson, Murray & Couzos, 2008).

Self-efficacy and self-esteem: Studies show that self-care outcomes have effects on a patient’s confidence. If the self-report points towards unstable glucose and unhealthy dietary tendencies, the patients tends to lose confidence in their abilities to carry out tasks and to undertake self-care. This leads to loss of self-esteem and self-efficacy making the patient feel insufficient.

Major depression and depressive symptoms: The patient is in low-spirits. She is in a state of shock and disbelief. This leads to loss of self-esteem, self-concept as well as loss of self-efficacy. This has a prevalent rate of 20% among diabetes patients, a proportion which represents double that of the general population

Diabetes-specific emotional distress: Patients living with type 2 diabetes are usually emotionally distressed by treatment procedures prescribed the physicians and the aspects associated with the health care team.

Other comorbid conditions: These include mental health, inter alia which may inhibit self-care in patients. This may lead to a need for medical examination as an inpatient (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2008).

Self-efficacy and self-esteem: Studies show that self-care outcomes have negative effects which erode a patient’s confidence.

“Imagine that you are the husband/children of the identified patient.  In order to do this try to understand the thoughts and feelings each is probably experiencing.  What are your concerns?  How will her diagnose effect your family roles?”

The husband has to take up family roles previously taken up by the patient. For instance, he will cook for them; see that they attend school, church, etc when the wife is unwell. He also will have to take care of his wife’s immediate needs such as giving her medicines, preparing the recommended diet for her, assisting her into the washrooms, etc.

Studies have shown that patients with more social support are less affected by the negative psychological factors such as major stress, emotional distress, loss of self-esteem as well as loss self-concept, powerlessness and are able to cope more quickly as compared to those without steady support.

Also cultural influences affect the psychological outcomes of the patient. For instance in some communities the husband is regarded as the head of the family who should not be involved in matters relating to kitchen which are considered the role of the wife. This may lead to the patient suffering more from the feeling of helplessness, incapability as well as self-denial especially when she sees the husband attending at roles she is supposed to take up. This may in turn lead to loss of confidence along with self-concept. She may also suffer from fear in addition to anxiety on the thought that the husband may for an alternative in marrying a second wife.

Reference

Atkinson D, Murray R, & Couzos S (2008) Diabetes. In: Couzos S, Murray R, eds. Aboriginal   primary health care: an evidence-based approach. 3rd ed. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press: 521-574. Available at http://www.jcu.edu.au/smd/JCUPRD1_058313.html         

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (2008). Diabetes: Australian facts 2008. Canberra:   Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Available at

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.1062/full

Hoy WE, Davey RL, Sharma S, Hoy PW, Smith JM,  & Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S., (2010). “Chronic disease profiles in remote Aboriginal settings and implications for health services planning”. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 34(1): 11-18.

Si D, Bailie R, Dowden M, Kennedy C, Cox R, O’Donoghue L, Liddle H, Kwedza R, Connors C, Thompson S, Burke H, Brown A, & Weeramanthri T (2010) Assessing quality of diabetes care and its variation in Aboriginal community health centres in Australia. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews; 26(6): 464–47. Available at http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=6442468075

The 2 additional PDF

Helps Y, Kowanko I (2011) Riverland Aboriginal chronic disease support group community storybook 2011. Melbourne: Aboriginal Health Council of South Australia

http://www.lowitja.org.au/files/docs/Riverland_Chronic_Disease_Book2011.pdf

Wendy E. Hoy, Rebecca L. Davey, Suresh Sharma, Phillip W. Hoy,

Joanna M. Smith & Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan (2010). Chronic disease profiles in remote Aboriginal settings and implications for health services planningavailable at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1753-  6405.2010.00467.x/pdf

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