The Causes and Consequences of the Rise of Twentieth Century Authoritarian Regimes in the Arabic Speaking Nations of the Middle East, Essay Example
Authoritarian leaderships are characterized by strict obedience and social control enforced by a ruler or government that uses oppressive measures to control its citizens. Under an authoritarian government, citizens are subjected to strict adherence in all aspects of their life including: political philosophies, religious practices, and civil liberties. The Middle East has the highest concentration of authoritarian rule in the world. Authoritarian rulers have used many tactics to keep control over their citizens. They have controlled the media, kept any violence away from the media, and elected leaders with authoritarian views to ensure control of the citizens. A struggle for freedom in the Middle East is underway between the anti-Jihadists and the supporters of violence and terrorism. The fight for freedom in the Middle East has given rise to authoritarian regimes that have resulted in radical terrorist groups, war, fear, and the activation of non-jihad groups who use violence to show disapproval of government policies can be felt in the Middle East and abroad.
The Arab uprising of 2011 was a result of authoritarian rule that became common in countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and. The protest in these countries were mainly based on a common agenda of reforming the leadership style into a democratic form that promoted transparency and accountability. The people were yearning for leadership style that could embrace change. The element of humanity arises especially on how the protestors were mistreated and even killed. In Syria for instance the government turned against its own people by firing live bullets on the protestors.
The Ottoman Empire was a dominant political power for nearly 640 years in the Middle East. Many things led to the fall of the Ottoman Empire, but specifically neighboring countries grew in power and opposed the Ottoman Empire. These other countries were more modern and were able to withstand any threats by the Ottoman Empire. Although the neighboring countries were growing in power and politics, the Ottoman Empire remained in the dark ages. The remained out dated in technology and politics and grew weaker and weaker each year. Because of this frustration, there was a great deal of fighting among the leaders of the Ottoman Empire. They lost most of the income from trade routes that Europe had used for generations. By the early 19th century, the Ottoman Empire was not a feared regime anymore.The lower class population was growing fast and was gaining power. The Sultans were unable to control the growing population. The Ottoman Empire eventually lost most of its territory to the Tanzimat.
Weapons of mass destruction and control regimes emerging from the Middle East have had dire consequences. The regimes are striving to return the Middle East back to the fundamental laws of the Koran and implement Islamic law.Often these groups are headed by radicals who express pure hatred for the Western world. This hatred is conveyed through terrorist attacks. One well known terrorist that was the result of authoritarian regimes was Osama Bin-Laden.He established al-Qaeda in 1988. Many Arabic people felt that Osama Bin-Laden was an answer to their prayers. They hoped that he would help to free them from the strict Islamic laws, but instead he subjected them to more violence and death.Salafi militants want to unite the Muslims under one religious rule. Due to their violence, there are many refugees fleeing Middle Eastern countries. The possibility that these refugees may spread terrorist ideas is very probable. If this happens, it will on add to the strife and violence already being endured in the Middle East.
Another result of the terrorist regimes actions in the Middle East is retaliation by other countries-America for example. Essentially, the United States has been at war with the Middle East since 2003. During this time and estimated 100,000 American soldiers have lost their lives. About 32,000 soldiers are estimated to have been wounded. There is an estimated 1.5 million Iraqi soldiers killed during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Countless number of civilians have been injured or lost their lives as a result of the war on terrorism.
Although many people want to see the Arabic nation gain democracy, many Arabic people convey disgust with democracy because they feel it is supportive of Western views. Recently, there have been elections in the Arabic world. However, these elections may produce leaders who have similar beliefs and other authoritarian leaders.
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