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The Effects of Different Type of Piston, Essay Example

Pages: 19

Words: 5139

Essay

Methodology

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine uses a relatively new mode of combustion technology. In principle, there is no spark plug or injector to assist the combustion and the combustion auto-ignites in multiple spots once the mixture has reached its chemical activation energy. The challenges in developing HCCI engines are the difficulties in: controlling the auto-ignition of the mixture and the heat release rate at high load operations, achieving a cold start, meeting emission standards and controlling knock. Numerical methods are commonly used to predict HCCI engines? Performance (i.e. emissions levels, brake thermal efficiency and combustion phasing), which is cost effective compared to solely relying on experimentation. In this basis, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Ansys/Fluent will be used to investigate the HCCI engine performance with different type of pistons. The mixing effect of the fuel-air mixture will be affected by using different piston, which may change the combustion phasing and then affects the engine performance. The following research assess the process of testing these pistons to clarify the true impact of changing piston design on performance, specifically as it relates to functions like volume, radial density and thickness.

The objectives are to determine:

Identification of the types of piston to be used in a gasoline fuelled HCCI engine.

There are a wide range of different types of pistons that can be used to support an internal combustion engine. The most commonly referenced pistons are trunk pistons, crosshead pistons, and slipper pistons. Trunk pistons are long in relation to their diameter, and they can work simultaneously as a piston and as a cylindrical crosshead. Trunk pistons have a common design and their structure dates back to the origin of the combustion engine. The name trunk piston, comes from the trunk engine, which was an earlier engine design for marine steam engines (Kusunoki, Tomizawa, & Mimura, 2008). The specifics of the name stems from how the engineers sought to design a compact engine that avoided using a piston rod, by placing what was known a gudgeon pin installed directly in the center of the piston. This was the main difference between a trunk engine piston and a trunk piston. The crosshead piston, on the other hand is noticeably different. They are usually applicable to large slow-speed diesel engines. This is due to the fact that these types of engines require additional side support. These pistons are designed in such a way that they have one large rod extending from the top down through the body of the piston (Kusunoki, Tomizawa, & Mimura, 2008). A slipper piston is one that is most commonly used for petrol engines. The petrol engine is reduced to the smallest amount of size and weight possible, so it would not be recommended for a larger piston to be utilized for such an engine. The slipper piston has substantially reduced size which offers benefits like friction reduction and reduction in how close the piston is to the cylinder which can assist in heat management. The deflector pistons are actually two pistons used in two stroke engines. The engine functions on a process known as crank case compression which entails the process of the piston directing gas flow that forms in the piston to flow to exhaust ports on the side walls of the piston.

In order to meet this objective, ANSYS software utilized to identify the way fluid functions within the system. Bhagat, Jibhakate, Chimote, (2012), study a certain piston design which they argue through the use of a finite elements method can endure a higher level of thermal stress. The authors use the piston model below and place a major importance on the design symmetry. This piston is the standard ideal piston for HCCI engine performance fuelled with gasoline.

The authors state that, “due to the symmetry of structure, model of piston has been made in the Pro/E software, and then the FEM is established using ANSYS software. The 3-D 20-node solid elements SOLID95is applied to mesh the whole structure, and 27374 nodes and 14129 elements are obtained” (Bhagat, Jibhakate., and Chimote, 2012). This is essentially a standard type of piston meant for use in a gasoline fuelled system. The essential concern with in respect to any components used to keep an HCCi functioning is that heat must be managed and kept from getting out of control. The ability of a piston to withstand thermal stress becomes a major concern. The images below demonstrate how thermal stress works within the piston and how it impacts factor like volume and fluid mesh.

The above image reveals how thermal stress is endured by the pistons. It shows that the majority of the heat that occurs during combustion is taken on by the edge of the piston sleeve, while significant portions of the center are left untouched. This allows for a piston design that can cut down on volume while still enduring significant heat and stress. The authors argue this type of piston with the following dimensions is essential the ideal piston for use, that can maintain the ideal dimensions.

The author finds that the radius of the piston geometry significantly impact the volume over the course of heating. The main objective of their study is to reduce the affect of overheating pistons on combustion engine performance. The authors note that, “on the other hand  piston overheating seizure can only occur when something burns or scrapes away the oil film that exists between the piston and they cylinder wall. Understanding this, it’s not hard to see why oild with exceptionally high film strengths are very desirable” (Bhagat, Jibhakate, and Chimote, 2012). Here the authors place a significant importance on the distinct use of oils that work to reduce friction between the working components of the engine. The study proves that through utilizing high quanlity oils a piston can be structured that will perform at a hgih level while enduring significant temperatures.

A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions (Kusunoki, Tomizawa, & Mimura, 2008).. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyse the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were evaluated. The crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, with a constant compression ratio of (17:1) (Rajam, Murthy, Krishna, Rao, 2013). The results of the study revealed that there is a level of pressure that can be shown where that the multi-zone model “can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results” (Rajam, Murthy, Krishna, Rao, 2013). Carbon monoxide emissions are under predicted, but the results are better than those obtained in previous publications (Kusunoki, Tomizawa, & Mimura, 2008). The improvement is attributed to the use of a 40-zone model, while previous publications used a 10-zone model. Hydrocarbon emissions are well predicted. For cylinders with wide crevices (1.3 and 2.1 mm), HC emissions do not decrease monotonically as the relative air/fuel ratio (λ) increases (Rajam, Murthy, Krishna, Rao, 2013).

Modelling the type of piston using ANSYS / Fluent

ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a software designed to simulate the real world performance of how fluids flows.  These software results are in turn adapted to the function of the engine throughout its design and manufacturing to ensure optimal results without need for experimentation. This presents a way for engineers to create optimal real environment in which they can test their products.  Components are tested throughout the design process as well as the manufacturing process. Testing can further be applied to the system during end use, where software fluid flow analysis abilities come into play to ensure proper transition from virtual testing to real world application, or to resolve troubleshoot issues with components wants products are physically functioning and operational. you are studying — single- or multi-phase, isothermal or reacting, compressible or not — ANSYS fluid dynamics solutions give you valuable insight into your product’s performance.

ANSYS has renowned CFD analysis tools which entail tools like ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS CFX. These two programs are respectively available within the ANSYS CFD bundle, which enables solver robustness and speed, development for teams to gather more detailed and in depth knowledge about their products. This form of advanced modelling is vital for ANSYS to provide fluid dynamics solutions that all stakeholders can trust. This form of technology is extremely scalable and enables parallel calculations from a few thousand processing cores. The combination of Fluent and CFX with the full capabilities of ANSYS CFD allows for advanced qualitative analysis.

ANSYS CFD solutions fully integrate with the ANSYS Workbench platform, which creates a work environment for engineers to create real world models that can be utilized for piston design. In addition to delivering engineers with the needed work setting for productivity and usable solutions, the workbench incorporates all your workflow needs in respect to simulation and processing. The most important aspect of the system can be seen in the multi-physics functionality of the system. This includes electronic fluid coupling, fluid–structure interaction. The workbench enables optimization or the exploration of other designs that could potentially change the industries.

ANSYS/FLUENT is a cost effective way to predict levels of performance by HCCI engines, specifically when modifications or changes are made (Satyanarayana and Sambaiah, 2012). It also serves as a valuable tool to develop automotive components within the industry.  ANSYS/FLUENT utilizes computational aspects of fluid dynamics to measure the way chemicals mix within an engine based on a wide range of metrics associated with engine performance. On these grounds, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ANSYS/FLUENT will be utilized to investigate the HCCI engine performance with different type of pistons. The mixing effect of the fuel-air mixture can be assessed using ANSYS/FLUENT to identify the different pistons and how they perform effectively, but also how these changes impact engine performance combustion phasing (Kusunoki, Tomizawa, & Mimura, 2008). The process for the IC simulation through ASNYS/Fluent, happens when all data is known, prior to inserting in the system. The data calculated by the software includes factors like the geometry of the velocity valve, the manifold port, the intake, the valve (Sheng-li, 2005). This enables mechanical engineers to access solutions of a cold flow case that solve for a cold flow case absent of any actual combustion. The cold flow case solution is utilized as combustion and compression conditions to provide a realistic set of initial field values IVC. The swirl and tumble, specifically in regards to their initial representation, can be approximated once IVC is established (Rajam, Murthy, Krishna, Rao, 2013. The piston model is designed based on procedure and specifications that are given in standard machine design data handbooks. The dimensions are estimated in the form of SI Units. Pressure applied to the piston head measures temperature of the piston, geometrical design stresses, heat flow, strains, piston hole diameters, thichkness and other parameters. Experiments and engine model simulations uncover combustion phasing is insensitive to inhomogeneity, but the emissions of NOx rapidly increases with “unmixedness” of chemicals flowing through the engine. In 2002 experiments were conducted to identify the impact of turbulence on HCCI combustion process and the role piston design plays in this process (Rajam, Murthy, Krishna, Rao, 2013). This research found that turbulence levels can fluctuate based on the design of the particular piston. This happens specifically in respect to whether a piston’s crown is detachable or it is held in place. It can also be influenced by whether or not the piston embodies a certain weight, volume or radial thickness. Many studies found that, “the influence of mixture motion and turbulence on HCCI self-ignition and combustion is low as compared to SI and CI combustion because HCCI combustion process is a reaction zone where heat is the major contributor to change (Satyanarayana, N., & Sambaiah, 2012).

One major boundary, that must be accounted for within the methodology of identifying the ideal piston is to focus on the impact and workings of soot and other pollutants within the engine during ANSYS analysis (Satyanarayana, & Sambaiah, 2012). NO and other pollutants like soot, play a substantial role in the potency of emissions. Discovering the ideal piston for the purpose of high performance in handling the combustion process occurred. NO develops in cases where the equivalence ratio of the combustion is below the balance of unity and flame temperature.  Soot on the other hand forms when lower temperatures and medium temperatures operate through a reliance on turbulent diffusion. As authors note,“the reason why it’s important to design a piston that enables mixing reactants and a high volumetric frequency, which can counteract the emissions of these two primary pollutants (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014). The main component of this process is the formation of nitric oxide emissions. This requires a wide range of models to be utilized to assess the formation of these emissions (Han-wu, & Ren, 2007). In this study the NO is measured using the Zeldovich mechanism correlation to evaluate the amount of nitrogen oxidation within the air intake (Ariga and Matsushita, 1988). This aspect of pollutants, such as soot and other factors plays a major role in the success of the project to provide for high performance or soot emissions the Tenser model is utilized to predict the level of carbon which tends to form on nucleic particles. AS the design of the piston plays a significant role in the level of pressure based fluent solutions in the HCCI’s operation, specifically in respect to energy, specie transport and reaction equations, the ANSYS Fluent must be configured through a solution process that accounts for pollutants and other factors (Vegi, and Vegi, 2003.

The ANSYS solver configuration allows for parameters that measures heat release curves based on piston design (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014).  The heat release rate of the ANSYS Fluent chart relies on numerical estimates of the average cylinder pressure for the crank angle, the temperature of the average cylinder wall, the continuous phase temperature, the wall area of the cylinder and the chamber volume. All of these metrics are represented within the ANSYS solver configuration for effective accuracy or performance measurements (Xue, & Xing-guo, 2007).

To evaluate the most suitable piston design to be utilized in the gasoline fuelled HCCI engine.

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have the capacity to achieve optimal fuel economy as well as substantially low emissions of PM and NOx (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014). HCCI engines do have the challenge of not being able to control how combustion timing starts(Xue, & Xing-guo, 2007). The challenge this presents can only be counteract d through cycle variations that provide a range of combustion parameters. Cyclic variations of a wide range design requirements can be found through the use of ANSYS which enables engineers to design pistons with the ideal performance metrics necessary to reduce emissions and increase performance. The required design necessary to develop a closed loop control of HCCI engines, one that will enable the engine to have full control over fuel mixing is one that takes advantage of piston geometry.  For the purpose of this research, the best piston for engine functionality is identified using ANSYS/Fluent.

The authors note that, “combustion stability and cycle-to-cycle variations of HCCI combustion parameters using gasoline like fuels (methanol, ethanol and butanol) were investigated in a modified four-cylinder, four-stroke engine” (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014). The experiments were conducted by varying the intake air temperature (Ti) and combining that with the  relative air–fuel ratio (k) as well as engine speed (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014). In the steady state engine operation, cylinder pressure signals for 2000 consecutive engine cycles were acquired for each test condition. From this large volume of experimental data collected, cyclic variations of various combustion parameters were evaluated to better understand the cycle-to-cycle variations of HCCI combustion parameters (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014). This process is formed through acquiring statistical parameters such as standard deviation of each parameter, or coefficient of variation (COV), and this data is then calculated among all test conditions of diverse piston types. were calculated for all test conditions. Combustion phasing was also analyzed by fitting different probability density functions (statistical distributions). Best-fit distribution for all test conditions can then be used for predicting and controlling the HCCI combustion timing for engine control.  Experiments and engine model simulations found combustion phasing is insensitive to inhomogeneity, but the emissions of NOx rapidly increases with “unmixedness” of chemicals flowing through the engine. In Aceves et al. (2002), the authors run an experiment structured to were conducted to identify the impact of turbulence on HCCI combustion process and the role piston design plays in this process. This research found that turbulence levels can fluctuate based on the design of the particular piston, based on whether the piston crown is detachable, or whether the piston embodies a certain weight, volume or radial thickness (Awate, Bhangare, and Deore, 2014).

Design Considerations for a Piston

The following represents piston design factors taken into consideration for the efficient function of an engine:

• The piston must provide significant strength, specifically the capability to withstand high amounts of pressure.

• The piston needs to be minimal in weight and the capacity to withstand forces of inertia.

• The piston needs to have an effective amount of oil sealing in the cylinder.

• The piston needs to enable sufficient bearing to prevent undue wear and tear.

• The piston needs to reciprocate a high frequency of speed in operation while having minimal noise.

• It should be of sufficient rigid construction to withstand thermal and mechanical distortions.

• The piston pin must have sufficient support.

Procedure for Piston Design

The procedure for piston designs consists of the following steps:

• Thickness of piston head is taken into consideration, represented as (tH).

• Piston head heat flows are represented with an (H).

• The radial thickness of the piston ring is represented as (t1).

• The piston’s axial thickness of the ring is represented as (t2)

• The top of the piston’s width of the top land is represented with (b1)

• Width of other ring lands (b2)

Aceves, Flower, Espinosa-Loza, Martinez-Frias, Dibble, Christensen and Hessel (2002), assess the effectiveness of a multi-zone model they state it has the ability to accurately predict HCCI combustion and emissions in wake of piston model design. The multi-zone methodology of their study is grounded in observations, which uncover the fact that turbulence has very little impact on the performance of HCCI combustion.  The study finds that chemical kinetics is the main factor that influences HCCI combustion as performance relies on the efficiency of automotive components to manage hot zones which ultimately controls the reaction process. A multi model piston allows for hot zones and cold zones to function in rapid succession simultaneously. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyse the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analysed, with crevices of 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained.

As the authors note, “the results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results. Carbon monoxide emissions are underpredicted, but the results are better than those obtained in previous publications” (Aceves et al., 2002). These improvements were attributed to the use of a 40-zone model, which was very different from previous studies which only use a 10-zone model. The hydrocarbon emissions are effectively predicted as it relates to cylinders with wide crevices. It was found that HC declines monotonically relative to the fuel ratio and the air intake. The multi zone piston design model revealed that maximum HC emissions can be achieved intermittently.

Christensen, Johansson, Hultqvist (2001), in their study on the effect of crevice volumes and the impact they have on emissions of unburned hydrocarbon the authors reveal that piston design can have a significant impact on how emissions are handled in relation to HCCI. Through experimental investigations the authors varied the size of piston geometry noting that “by varying the size and the geometry of the largest crevice, the piston topland, it was possible to ascertain whether or not crevices are the largest source of HC” (Christensen, Johansson, Hultqvist, 2001). The study also assessed how these redesigns in piston geometry influenced ultra-lean mixtures, specifically in respect to how they are obtained. A single cylinder engine fuelled with iso-octane was used for testing and results revealed the majority unburned hydrocarbons fall from crevices which results in an Increase in the topland width and an increase in hydro carbon. The study found however that this result could be reduced as “a further increase in topland width (≻1.3 mm) resulted in a reduction of HC when using mixtures richer than λ approximately equal to 2.8, indicating that some of the mixture trapped in the topland participates in the combustion” (Christensen, Johansson, Hultqvist, 2001). The main finding the authors present is that when the piston gemotery was such that the topland of the piston allowed for crevices  it made HC sensitive to topland height, making the height of the piston’s topland a significant factor influencing the emissions (Christensen, Johansson, Hultqvist, 2001). Testing revealed conditions occurred in the topland, and that by opening up the topland, the HC emissions can be reduced by as much as 50% (Christensen, Johansson, Hultqvist, 2001).

Based on the above findings, this research thesis concludes that the ideal piston has the following paramters set for optimum performance. The length of the piston does not change after optimization with a length of 152mm throughout the entire process of heating (Anusha and Reddy, 2013). Furthermore, the application of different levels of heat on the piston do not impact its affected length, and the diameter also does not change. This means that the ideal piston according to past research and ANSYS analysis is one where the piston can withstand thermal change without giving up lean size reduction benefits after the optimization process. The volume however did change as applying temperature and pressure loads impacted the volume. The methodology for uncovering the relationship between volume of the piston and temperature adjustment is to assess changes in metrics that occur in ASNYS. The research reveals that through pre-optimization measures of 997021mm3 which change to 752994mm3 after optimization, it’s clear that the volume of the piston noticeably reacts to adjustments in heat levels. The radial thickness, however makes a more noticeable response to increases in heat and friction. These factors are taken into account and examined thoroughly through the use of ANSYS.

Conclusion

In sum, ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a software designed to simulate the real world performance of how fluids flows.  These software results are in turn adapted to the function of the engine throughout its design and manufacturing to ensure optimal results without need for experimentation. . Automobile components represent an aspect of mechanical engineering that are in high demand based on the progressive increase of automobile usage. This increased demand is primarily due to the fact that the automotive industry continuously seeks to improve performance of automotive components while simultaneously reducing their cost. The ANSYS solver configuration allows for parameters that measures heat release curves based on piston design.  The heat release rate of the ANSYS Fluent estimates dictates the thickness in the piston design. There are also factors which entail the ability of the piston to endure pressure. Estimated average cylinder pressure shows that stress distribution on the piston depends on piston shape. The geometric design of the piston impacts all aspects of performance, specifically as it relates to the ability of the piston to withstand heat. The most critical aspect of piston design is the crown which needs to be stiff and virtually immobile, to avoid being deformed. All aspects of the ANSYS study will evaluate the ability of the proposed piston to perform under real pressure in a real world setting, based on the mythological practices of this study.

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Aristotle indicates in the first passage that producing a cathartic effect is a crucial element when it comes to constructing a tragedy. In the second [...]

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Aristotle indicates in the first passage that producing a cathartic effect is a crucial element when it comes to constructing a tragedy. In the second [...]

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African – American History: Black American Cinema, Essay Example

Black American Cinema is about criticism of films produced by black Americans. This is the first inclusive collection of African American cinema critiques. From the [...]

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How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!