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Dissertation - Discussion

Students will go to the similar minds web site and take the Jung test (short version). After receiving your results discuss how you would counsel a person with your results. Also include any strengths/weaknesses of the test noted in research, and cultural, youth and women concerns.

As a counselor, I would take into consideration the results of a person’s Jung test.  For instance, in using the results I received, ENFJ, I would counsel a person with these results based on some characteristics from this personality type.  The ENFJ has choices for different types of professions.  Basically, they can choose from a diverse set of professions, such as consultants, psychologists, social worker, teacher, salesperson, politician, writer, or more.  Therefore, it would be my job to review the person’s experiences as well as their hobbies and interests.  In addition, I think knowing the individuals intelligence is also important.  Previous research, (Turnham et al., 2005), has studied the correlation between intelligence and personality, using the Jung’s personality factors. This study found that personality and intelligence were related to each other and should be studied together instead of independently. Therefore, as a counselor, it would be suggested that I factor intelligence when counseling for a career choice.  In regard to culture, the Jung test does not favor one particular culture or even a particular race or gender.  In fact, Jung’s research found that his personality types based on archetypes where instinctual.  Each type of culture he studied exhibited the same archetypes.  (Changing Minds) Therefore, we can suggest that the Jung test is socially and culturally made for different races, genders and cultures

References

Furnham, A., Moutafi, J., Paltiel, L.  (2005) Intelligence in Relation to Jung’s Personality Types. Individual Differences Research.  3(1):2-13.

Jung, C.G. (1964). Man and His Symbols, New York; Doubleday and Company, Inc.

Week 4: Chapter 7

This chapter covers career development with children and focuses on two theories: Super’s Model of the Career Development of Children and Gottfredson’s theory of Self-Creation, Circumscription, and Compromise. Examine these theories and do a comparison and contrast their strengths and weaknesses on working with children. Be sure to focus on the current issues of children today.

Super’s (1957) theory of career development of children has been used by counselors as a tool to illustrate how image norms may operate in each of the career stages.  Super (1990), indicated that the image norms influence the career decisions that a child will make as they develop into an adult.  Today there is so much more media and television programs in which children are influenced by.  This is a current issue with children and it shapes them, in regard to image.  For instance, the physical appearance of an individual is influenced by the career decision, as it reelects the occupational stereotypes.  As an example, a child who is extremely attractive may be influenced to pursue a career in modeling.  Other image norms, could be gender, race, or ethnicity “Ultimately, all of these factors may shape one’s perception of image and become the basis for image norms (The Free Library, 2011)”.  Gottfredson’s theory of Self-Creation, Circumscription, and Compromise assumes that there is a cognitive map that we pick up from stereotypes around us. (Winter, 2011)  The stereotypes lead to occupations based on gender and the field of work we want to pursue.  The cognitive map is built when we are children and it begins to tell us which type of careers is fit for us.  The difference with this theory is that it is not showing anything about intelligence, experience or family inputs.  In today’s world, however, this would assume that children are being molded from the stereotypes.  With the internet, television, games and freedom in which the children exhibit today, it seems that the two theories should be combined in order for children to focus their career path based on experience, family and the cognitive map.

References

The Free Library.  (2011) Applying image norms across Super’s career development stages. Retreived on December 22, 2011 from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Applying+image+norms+across+Super’s+career+development+stages.-a0147914529

Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row.

Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice development (2nd ed., pp. 197-261). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Winter, D. (2011) Circumscription and compromise. The Careers Group, University of London.  Retreived on December 22, 2011 from: http://careersintheory.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/theories_gottfredson.pdf.

Read chapter 8 on Super’s theory on growth stage of adolescent career development. Under the Course Materials read the “Youth Career Programs” file. It will review six youth career programs in the United States. As counselors you will be ask to prepare and/or implement career programs as well as evaluate programs. For this discussion you will consider the issues of our youth today such as violence, single-parent homes, sex, budget cuts, unemployment, drugs, etc. With these considerations, evaluate the programs doing a comparison and rank the programs according their effectiveness. Explain why and how Super’s theory was an influence (if any). Respond to two classmates by making any suggestions or comments on the programs’ strengths and weaknesses

Super’s theoretical assumptions are directed towards career development based on two major criteria namely, “Life Role “and “Life stages.” Some vital roles outlined by this theory are coupled as studying and working; community service and leisure activities; family and home and singularly personal development. ( Super,  1963)

From enacting these roles Super makes further assumptions to deduct that they initiate a value paradigm inherent in making career choices. These choices are closely related to “life stages.” Eight distinct stages are outlined in the typology with adolescence being the first. It was emphasized that even though there may be a chronological age relationship attached to each stage it is not to be understood as a universal pattern since people may keep recycling stages at any age. ( Super, 1963)

Precisely, in considering the recycling of stages among adolescents, career development factors such as domestic and community violence, teenage single-parent homes, sexual abuse and harassment in homes and work places, budget cuts by state entities affecting income intensified by unemployment affect adolescent career development.

Then, drugs addiction severely hampers career development among adolescents who have to engage in rehabilitation for extended periods of their life. As such, they may be stuck in a stage until in their later years of life. Hence, programs must be in place primarily to address career development from as aspect of preventing the dysfunctions experienced in our society among many adolescents affected by the dilemmas mentioned earlier.

Each program identified in the six stage typology advanced by Super’s models has its own merit comparatively. When assessing them from an individual perspective it is observed that elements such as self-assessment, exploration and education; work society and the economy, awareness of opportunities, career decision-making and employability have been usefully integrated. (Super, 1963)

References

Super, D.  (1963) Career Development: Self-Concept Theory. College Board: New York. Print.

Week 5: Chapter 9

Examine the five areas in the life role. Explain how these areas played a role in your career choice? Be sure to include Super’s life stages and cultural issues like stated in the chapter. Respond to two classmates.

Home and Family

The major factor in making my career choice has been my family. I knew and learned about responsibilities from my home and family. I almost gave up on many things but was able to attain them because I was motivated and always consulted by my family for advice. They gave me a pat on the back and corrected me where I went wrong. They motivated me to work harder and always encouraged me to put more effort for better grades.  It has been stated that one of the greatest contributions to career development is the role of self-concept and it is through the family and life experiences in which self-concept is changed and developed. (Super, 1963)

Studying

Studying for my professional career has facilitated my knowledge and qualified me to pursue and develop a career in my field of choice.  As in Super’s theories, (1963), there are components on reaching a vocational maturity and career planning and exploration come first, then the knowledge and skills follow.  Therefore, through consistent and mature studying, I was able to develop the knowledge and skills to make my career choice for my preferred occupation.

Working

There is an archway to career determinants and it is through work experience in which we learn that we have a passion for a certain career.  Again, gaining the knowledge through working helps attain our personal goals and societal goals.  If we are comfortable in our self-concept and our peers in the work-force, we are more apt to choose that career path. (Super, 1990)

Community service voluntarily giving back to the community is an important role in life. It may be in a religious, political or social way but whichever the case it’s voluntary. I got to learn a lot from it that went a long way in helping me in my life as I grow older. Some virtues and values I got from it really helped in my career and how to relate with others.

Leisure Activities

Leisure’s activities help one to re-energize or refresh after the day to day life routines. You get time to stay away from the issues, stresses of life which promotes the well-being of a person, physically, emotionally and health wise. When I felt worn out I used my leisure time wisely which was one thing that made me sharp in my work. I use to read a lot which is somehow different from studying which helped me get bits of information from different books that boosted my career. I cannot actually say it helped me in choosing my career but through the habits, it sharpened my skills.
In super life stages we have:

Exploration

The exploration stage at age 15-24 was characterized by my choices in both high school and college. I began to explore the career fields I was interested in and entered college to begin studying classes to find my strengths and weaknesses.  I found my interest and then finished my degree to enter the workforce, which was my first trial in my career.

Establishment

The establishment stage is between ages 25-44. The beginning of this stage is where a change of occupation may prompt or the notion that you want to settle with this career falls into place.  For me, I enjoyed this field and pursued an advanced degree in my field of choice.  Therefore, I began the stabilization substage of the establishment stage, in which I am making an effort to settle down.
Maintenance
The maintenance stage basically means that one holds on to what they have.  My changing career and educational advancement, also is supplemented with the constant need to study and keep up with the changing scientific fields and research in order to maintain my career choice.  Disengagement
At this stage I plan on reaching retirement and being happy and settled with my life career choices.

Recycling

When one changes her career they go through the same stage they have been before. I haven’t changed my career yet and do not intend to therefore cannot make assumptions on this point.

References

Sharf, R.S. (2010). Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling (5thed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

Super, D.  (1963) Career Development: Self-Concept Theory. College Board: New York. Print.

Super, D.E. (1990).  Archway of career determinants. In D. Brown & L. Brooks [Eds.], Career Choice and development.  San Francisco: Josser-Ross.

You can respond to Sammanth D. in the discussion with this:

Samantha, you bring up a great topic in your discussion about women’s roles in the home and family where men are the breadwinners.  I agree that there would be some difficulty in using the stage models due for this reason. It also brings up the notion that women today even deal with the stage model difficulty when they are faced with beginning a family while in their career development.

Week 6: Chapter 10

Case Study: client A is 62-year old divorcee who was terminated from a job a year ago, but the company was found to be at fault by unemployment. Client A is a convicted felon (1995) and was released from prison four years ago (2004). The academic background includes college, but no degree and majored in Political Science. The professional background is: military veteran, security company owner, and recreation activity director. Client A has been having difficulty obtaining a job although is going to interviews.

Students need give Client A a gender and ethnicity. As a career counselor, how would you assist Client A with his or her crises and transition using the model(s) in the chapter. Respond to two classmates

References

Adam is a 62-year old african-american male who is divorced and seeking employment. As his Career Counselor, I would first try to understand Adam’s situation in effort to help him. I would encourage this male client by reassuring him that there are many jobs available for people in his situation. He just needs to be patient despite the urgency to take care of bills and relieve himself from dependency on family members. Regardless of how theoretical the phenomenon may appear, it would be more comfortable to be reassured than relate to him from a space of intellect.  In addition, I would help him with his interviewing techniques. According to Super’s Life Span/Life Space Theory, he believed that individuals are not static, but that personal change is continuous.  Therefore, it would be important for Adam to emphasize this in interviews.  Basically that he is personally changed and has personal influences in his life that has developed him to enter the workforce as a new individual. (CCDF)

CCDF (Canadian Career Development Foundation).  Big Picture View of Career Development Theory. Retrieved on December 22, 2011 from: http://ccdf.ca/ccdf/NewCoach/english/ccoache/e4a_bp_theory.htm

Week 6: Chapter 12

This chapter focuses on the parental roles in career development from the attachment theory and family systems theory. The two theories by Roe and Phillips are discussed. Critique these two theories and discuss how the current issues in family structure and dynamics will play a role in career development. Be sure to include the attachment and family systems theory. Respond to two classmates.

References

Most individuals are introduced to careers from family. Roe and Phillips believe that children development their career paths from parental attachment and their family interactions as a child.  Children observe their parents and are attached to their parents.  This attachment to parents has an effect of the life roles that the children will develop as they become adults.  “There is evidence to suggest that parental attachment relationships affect work, family, and life satisfaction in many ways (Perrone et al., 2007)”.  For instance, Roe suggested that people who choose “people-oriented” careers do so because of their childhood experience from being raised by warm and nurturing parents (Roe, 1957).  The family systems theory also agrees with the attachment theory in that it theorizes that individuals choose careers based on their family system interactions.  “Family systems theory allows one to understand the organizational complexity of families, as well as the interactive patterns that guide family interactions (Online Free Encyclopedia)”.  It is therefore, the type of family interaction and the extent of the parents’ interaction with the child in which facilitates in the child’s career development as an adult.  For instance, it must be noted that there is nothing hereditary concerning a number of children within a family choosing the same occupation. In addition, within the family structures, there are impositions which some children follow based on who will pay for their education. Furthermore, depending on the culture in which the child is brought into, that has an effect as well.  For example, some Asian cultures have high goals for their children in math and science and those children are often pushed into science and medical fields from their parents.  Therefore attachment theory is limited to this element of compliance of parents’ desires.

Perrone, K.M., Webb, L.K., Jackson, Z.V.  (March 2007).  Relationships between parental attachment, work and family roles, and life satisfaction. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JAX/is_3_55/ai_n18791408/.

Roe, A. (1957). Early determinants of vocational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 4:212-217.

Online Free Encylopedia.  Family Systems Theory – Basic Concepts/propositions, Challenges And Future Directions.  Retrieved on December 22, 2011 from: http://family.jrank.org/pages/599/Family-Systems-Theory.html

Week 7: Chapter 14 & 15

Read Chapter 14 and 15. Students will make a comparison and contrast of the Social Learning Theory and at least two Career Decision-Making Approaches. Include the strengths and weakness as well as the focusing on the appropriateness with working with different groups (i.e., school-aged children, women, men, ethnicity, etc.). Be sure to respond to two classmates.

The Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn through observing others people’s behaviors and consequences to those behaviors.  “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” (Bandura).  There are social learning theories that expand out from the original social theory into a career decisions making theory.  For instance, Krumboltz’s theory on social learning theory of career decision making (SLTCDM) and the learning theory of careers counseling (LTCC).  (Krumboltz et al, 1976; Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1990; Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996).  These theories provided information to explain why people choose different jobs.  The SLTCDM theory on one hand explains the etiology of the individual’s career choice, whereas the LTCC explains how career counselors help with an individual’s career related questions or issues.  (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1990; Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996) In addition, the SLTCMD theory bases its theory on four different factors such as genetics, environmental conditions, learning experiences, and task approach skills.  Whereas, the LTCC theory helps counselors show individuals how to prepare for work tasks, assist and direct people and show people how to take actions.  These two theories are similar in that they both refer back to the social learning theory in which they use the individuals past experiences and life history to find out which career choice would be beneficial to them.   The strengths of the SLTCHM theory is that it helps the individual choose a career based on the history; however, if the individual has not had experience with a specific career, they will not know if they are good at it.  This is therefore a difficult theory to apply to individuals whom are entering college.  They need the experience.  The LTCC theory helps individuals who are looking for a career and this poses strengths for the counselor. If the counselor learns from this theory, it will benefit the any group of people, whether women or men and all types of students, recent graduates, or older individuals.

References

Krumboltz, J.D., Mitchell, A.M. & Jones, G.B. (1976) A Social Learning Theory of Career Selection.  The Counselling Psychologist. 6(1):71-81.

Krumboltz, J.D. and Nichols, C. W. (1990) Integrating the Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making in Walsh, W.B. & Osipow, S.H. (eds).  Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., New Jersey, pp.159-192.

Mitchell, L.K. & Krumbolt, J.D. (1996) Krumboltz’s Learning Theory of Career Choice and Counseling in Brown, D., Brooks, L. & Associates (eds) (3rd edition) Career Choice and Development San Francisco, California: Jossey Bass.

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