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1492 Through Louis XIV, Essay Example

Pages: 20

Words: 5466

Essay

An absolute monarchy is when a ruler is the only one in power. All the power is control by the absolute monarch in control of a country. Absolute monarchs rule until they die.  The constitutional monarch is the opposite, they do not have full power and that power is shared with the population. The absolute monarch evolved from inheritance of the power like Qatar and Saudi Arabi. The constitutional monarchy evolved from English controlled regions. King John I in 1215 established the constitutional monarchy, King Edward I established parliament in 1295 and King James Bible was a constitutional monarchy. Depending on the historical reference the Absolute Monarchies in Europe in the 1300 when the economy was declining.  The absolute monarchies also deplete or decline the economy because the all support heavy taxing of the people. How they each are tied to economy?  Absolute Monarchies believe that all authority of the monarch came from God, when the religious wars ended it open up freed of religion for North religions of Calvinism and Lutherism and the South freedom to worship with Catholics?

Henry VIII believes that the Church of England should be separated from the Catholic Church and dissolve monasteries. Henry VIII believes he was the Supreme head of the Church of England. Henry VII was about absolute power.  However, Louis XIV was a better king because he made some important social changes including helping his people of France. France benefits from his rule and the French would prosper for generations to come. Louis XIV was similar to Henry VIII because he too was an absolute monarchy. The primary different was they had different views towards God and power but they both had similar beliefs as absolute monarchs. Louis XIV was different because he chose the sun as his symbol of power.

Louis XIV believes that he was the power alone versus William of Orange fought for the people and his country. William of Orange despised Louis XIV because of what he stood for but more importantly because he conquered his hometown. William of Orange was a better ruler and a better general because he never gave us after many lose to the French. He eventually exhausted Louis XIV finances that were for to sign a treaty.

The Huguenots were members of the Church of France known as the French Calvinist believe life is religion and God predetermines everything that happens on this earth. The Huguenots believe the Catholics worshiped death and the rituals did not redeem souls. The Puritans were English Protestants that believe pleasure is the only good without experiencing pain. Huguenots believe in a higher being and Puritans and Puritans believe that GOD is over all human affairs. Puritans do not believe in Catholics, Huguenots or Christian point of views. Huguenots impact countries because they affected the balance of religious choices, over 200,000 Huguenots left France settling in any non catholic nation such as Germany, Dutch and Switzerland to name a few countries. These countries benefited from the Huguenots migration. Puritans are different because they headed a social movement that impact monarchies because they gave rise to a different religious believe called the Protestants. By a landslide the Huguenots were the most successful, you have Protestants in every country in the world. The primary reason is the Huguenots move to continents all over the world to keep their believes alive.

The printer press was one the single most underrated and underappreciated accomplishments. It was the invention of reading a book which opens the door to new ideas and other ways of thinking besides the norm. When every person is able to read and write that when the world became more innovative. Please and simple books allow the world to talk to each other, learn about other cultures and improve the worlds commerce globally.

Gun powder was a commodity like gold. It had some many benefits including chemistry. Gunpowder was originated in China then spread to the rest of the world.  It was original called black powder. In the 1700 it was experimenting with explosions, 1800 developing nitroglycerin, and 1900 smokeless gun powder.

The Huguenots were members of the Church of France known as the French Calvinist believe life is religion and God predetermines everything that happens on this earth. The Huguenots believe the Catholics worshiped death and the rituals did not redeem souls. Calvinist believe that God has a relationship with anyone that accepts God but based on the Five points of Calvinism which different from the Huguenots. Calvinist believes God saves those that believe in him only. The Lutherans are different from the Huguenots and Calvinists because Lutherans are Catholics because they split from the Catholics. Even though, Lutherans have some different doctrines and beliefs they are still Catholic in nature and beliefs. All three religions are successful but the Catholics are the most widespread in the world but has not overtaken Christianity but if you considered the number of religions that evolved from Christianity and the Catholic religions.

Imperialism is force power on a foreign country to control a much weaker country. Imperialism is building large empires which Europe has reached unprecedented growth with the rapid expansion around the world. The effect of Europe on other countries such as Asia proves that imperialism still exists in Europe because they impact the growth in other countries exploitation of the people’s culture and country. When discussing the most successful imperialism empire would have to be Japan. This is the best example of an unequal economics and culture. Japan has been the best at taking over less developed and weaker cities, county or countries.

Mercantilsmis the control of foreign trade to ensure military prospers as head of the state or country.  Mercantilsm is responsible for changing the face of wealth. A onetime the person or country that had the most cash was the most profitable and powerful, however, with the advent of Mercantilism the wealthiest countries had the best foreign trade policies to benefits their respective countries. History talks about discovering the new world with Christopher Columbus but they were looking for new places to trade and develop their Mercantilism interest around the globe. Mercantilism leads to capitalism when the charge a price for the license to do business with merchants and in exchange for taxes.

In comparison, Cardinal Richelieu was responsible for centralizing power in France including defending against rebellions but his greatest feat was establishing a group of professional bureaucrats. His motivation was to ensure power was distributed to protect France into the future. Cardinal Richelieu was responsible for establishing the foundation of absolutism. Oliver Cromwell was more successful because he develops the first modern constitution. Cromwell moved to a virtual dictatorship.

The scientific revolution was the development of math, science, biology and medicine which enhanced the world’s evolution. The scientfic revolution opens up the doors for improving every aspect of governments improving group breaking scientfic discoveries. As a result, the government promoted the advancement of the scientific revolution.  In addition, to improve economic conditions with new technology and medicine. Sir Isaac Newton would the most important scientist of any period the three laws of motion and classical mechanics.

The balance of power can be explained in several ways such as government distribution of power, power exercised by a party, How did it evolve in Europe from 1500 to 1715? The 1400 was the power of Martin Luther; the 1500 was the power of Calvinism and the later years was dominated by Catholics and Lutherans.  The changes were based on changes in religion in Europe or France.

The was a war fought between European powers including the division of Spain. The alliances of United Provinces, England and Emperor Leopold who declared war. The results Canada was lost to the French and the advent of the French Revolutions. The reason for the war was because of the Hapsburg Dynasty was to keep the power with incest that keeps the power in the family.  Since the King Charles II was mentally retarded other colonies began claim the throne which resulted in the wars.

It was international warfare on who would control foreign economics such as Mercantilism.  They were fighting for commercial superiority and control. The Mercantile Wars started with Holland and England and competitors for trade in the Orient. Louis XIV was fighting all European countries for control, then came the “The Treaty of Utrecht “after the death of Louis XIV as a result England because the leader in commercial Mercantilsm.

The middle ages in Europe was the develop or the groundwork for stock exchanges and banks in the 1500s and early 1600s. The early banks were formed in the Netherlands and Italy to handling global trades. The next evolution was the advent of privately owned and state owned banks. Which lead to the wealth of banking families the Medicis, the Fuggers and everyone is familiar with the Rothschilds. The stock   is a share of ownership that goes back to the 9000 BC when clay was used like an accounting system.

The greatest commercial commodity was cotton. Politics?  Economy? The agriculture in the 1500 and 1600 grew extremely fast based on wheat, oats, barley, rye and corn that came from other parts of the world. The most valuable commodity during this time was flour because flour has some many different uses and the flour had high trade value on the market. The farmers in the Southern colonies change the way trading was done globally being one the producers of these agriculture products including the growing of tobacco which was original grown and cropped in Virginia, Jamestown, North and South Carolina and Georgia. Those farming principles are still in play today. The agriculture production is still owned and run by the same families and farms today.

Serfs are medieval slaves in Europe but they could leave the land from which they lived. The serfs had an obligation to the local lord to grow crops which the lords would get profits and money from their working the crops. Basically, serfs were land workers that had experience working the land for a profit but the land belong to the lord. If the lord sold the land , the new owner owned the crops as well. This type of land arraignment still exists today. In central Europe the serfs were responsible for  the agriculture growth of a colony which they basically worked for free in exchange to live on the land for rent.

The impact was great for Western Europe because Columbus would send the spoils of discovery and commodities back to Europe. Columbus would rape and destroy the environment cutting down entire forest and sending any animals they could kill back to Europe. In addition to land grabbing before other countries could make any claim. Columbus brought disease to the habitants and basically destroys an entire culture and the impact on Americas and Africa was monumental discovering new wealth with commodities.

Western Civilization  is a civilization that derived from Europe. Western Civilization is the melting pot of different cultures such as Ancient Greece, Reformation and the British Empire. Its different because it developed thousands of years ago as small communities that each had its own religion, beliefs, traditions and their own society that merge over time. We concentrate on learning Western Civilization because of the rich history of so many cultures that can give us information about our past.

How does it influence politics and government in the period following 1517?  The Reformation was responsible for dividing the Western Christianity in 1056 which reshaped the religious values of Europe. From this point in history it changed the way people thought about culture and religion. The reformation impacted government and politics because the faith changes from a monolithic form to divided parts with different views on life and God. By the 1500 it was beginning of serious changes in Western Europe. Western Europe emerged during this period in technology and the way of life for marriages change introducing contraceptives and birth control to control the growth of the population.

This was an organized group of assassins that set-out to kill the Huguenots or French Calvinists during the religious wars of the French. The participants were the local assassins, Huguenots, and Roman Catholic mobs. In the long run it caused massive migrations of those that did not want to be persecuted or killed.

Phillip II of Spain was an absolute monarch that a peoples king who defended the Catholic faith and conquered Portugal. Henry IV was credited with bring peace in his home country and abroad. He brought prosperity to France. He was different from Phillip because his beliefs were converted to Roman Catholicism.  Elizabeth I of England was the greatest monarch who improved expansion overseas and brought into the future the best scientific minds such as Sir Walter Raleigh. Even in war Elizabeth was the best when she conquered the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth I brought peach but Henry IV had to win wars and convert to be accepted as a great leader. Henry IV was considering the best ruler because of his compassion and love of his people. Phillip II of Spain was considering the worst because he defended the Catholic Church at any cost.

Eastern absolutism is derived from absolute monarchies. Eastern nations develop into absolute monarchies from Louis XIV  who was the first set of absolutism in the 1600s. The rise of absolutism in the east was inevitable in response to religious wars. The absolute had a solid foundation to build a stronger and more effective government. The crux of the problem was absolute leaders believe they were ordained by God to look after the masses and they alone would be make decisions for the people. The east rise was because they were given more power to rule with interference which meant the rise of absolutism meant the serf suffered severely as peasants. Ultimately, the serf rights were taken away and persecuted and killed for no reason at all. However, this form of absolutism was a debacle when comparing to Louis XIV absolutism system of government which operated flawlessly until the French Revolution 1789.

Yes, it is possible for an absolute ruler to be enlightened because the definition describes the enlighten absolute leader as one who embraces enlightenment  believing that their power was not divine but a social contract to rule the people very wisely. The best example to support this answer is Frederick the Great was best absolute ruler who served the state first not to his own whims as result Frederick the Great rebuilt stronger agricultural reforms, strength the state, resisted all opposition that tried to suppress the people, modernized Prussia, established freedom of press, abolished torture and built Prussia into the most powerful and strongest nations.

The Thirty Years War was the most destructive wars in Central Europe. This war started for many different reasons but the point of the war was lost but the theme was power and religious fighting between Protestants, Catholics and the Holy Roman Empire. This war devastated the regions for years to come with soldiers and mercenaries often changing sides which was a recipe for disaster. Even after the treaty the religious wars never stop and became more vicious and destructive. In contrast, the War of Spanish Succession, was fought by several European Powers including a spilt Spain. The war fought in Europe by Queen Annes War, Duc de Villas,and Jacobite Duke of Berwick, Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy. Spain primary problems during this war period were because Charles of Spain II was mentally challenged and everyone made claim to the throne with each decision having major implications including war. The difference is the aftermath from the Thirty years which devestated the regions, the war of Spanish Succession created unemployed privateers which turned into the Piracy and the beginning of Golden Age of Piracy. This is not winner here one devestated entire regions and the other devastated the French and Spain.

Theory of resistance could justify disobedience on religious grounds and the right of self defense and civil liberties. Basically, it means that power and authority may be resisted by individuals or groups. Yes, it contradicts the divine rights because divine rights mean the right of a sovereign to rule by government at the right given by God. How does it contradict ideas of ‘divine right’?  The wars after the Luther 95 grew into a theoretical war into a political one with the rebellions known as the Peasant wars. It change the way European government was developed for limiting the control of the Catholic church and giving rise to the Protestants.

The role of the Netherlands politics in Western Europe starts with the makeup of the government unlike the US that has judicial system with a judge to make decisions on laws. Netherland does not have a constitution. It’s a monarch that is control and in power is the Queen who is the head of state and cabinet ministers. But the real power is the Council of the State who advises on every piece of legislation. The politics of this era surrounded the Seventeen Provinces which covered all of the Netherlands. Conflicts between Phillip II and the Dutch lead to the Eighty years War in 1568. Which the political machine ensured seven provinces gain independence. By the 1600 Century which was an important period of change which the Margraviate of Antwerp because the true power and political machine by controlling the economics and political machines of that period.

The roles began with Ivan the Great who died in 1505 which began the power and political reign of Grand Duke of Muscovy then the reign of Ivan IV the Terrible which followed by Prince Nemoy. The union of Lublin was signed in 1569 Poland and Grand Duchy merged which made a severe political change because   Poland supported the Ludhiana wars against Muscovy. Ivan Terrible was the most important leader of Russia because he revised the laws of that era bringing  peaceful reforms. In addition, Ivan the Terrible issue an order for the first printing press in 1500 century  which leads to religious doctrine translated in Russian.

The Poland most influential times of politics was Jagiellon kings this was the era of a period of maximum political power. The impact was stabilizing the effect of Poland’s politics. This was known as the period of the Jagiellon Dynasty which impact the period.

The role of politics in Sweden had three critical political players: Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson from 1391 to 1436: Karl Knutsson Bonde from 1409 to 1470 and Sten Sture the Elder from 1440 to 1503. Englebrekt was a rebel leader that led revolts that protected the country was considered a folk hero. Karl influence was evident went elected to the Privy Council of Sweden  and Sten came to power after the demise of Charles VII  was for the people and change the direction of power and politics with the support of the peasants. Each one had a major role in politics of Western Europe during this period.

Everything changed during this period from the middle ages to development of the new world. Finally serfdom ended, nation states were formed and the Catholic Church control was broken and changed forever with the Industrial and French Revolutions. Europe went from a developing region to a major power with workers and a democratic system that worked. The family changed for the better with more children getting education and more women entering the workforce. The biggest change is the peasants began to organized and have a voice in the future.

The Peace of Westphalia was a number of treaties that were signed that ended the Thirty years wars. Which benefited peace of Westphalia but fighting was still evident in Europe and Spain continues to be at war. After the war the Holy Roman Empire lost power which was returned to the Imperial States. The Treaty of Utrecht is group of peace treaties signed by the volatile opposes in the War of Spanish Succession. In contrast, Phillip was allowed to stay in power which is different from the Treaties of Utrecht that had an exchange of powers and shifting of powers. After the treaties, the French was still at war with Charles VI and the Holy Roman Empire until the 1700s. Ultimately, wars continue to brew until Spain agreed to peach in 1720.

The Whigs and Tories were British parliamentary groups that formed the Liberal Parties and the Tories were the British Political party started in the 17th century. In general, the Whigs sometimes support constitutional monarchy however, the Tories are in support of more powerful monarchs. The Whigs help develop government because they believed in  government for aristocratic families.  The Whig believes in equal rights and opposes the taxes. The Tories, in contrast believe in taxes and stronger government. Also that the King did nothing wrong and has the power to treat colonies anyway they see fit. The Tories are loyal to the English and against the War of Independence.

The Enlightenment is an  intellectual movement in Western world that believe in individual freedoms not as peasants.  Enlightenment thinkers believe in human knowledge and understanding that impacted every phase of the life. In close relation, Laissex-fair in a financial arena promotes interactions on both parties that are free of any government taxes or monopolies. The business market is completed free Enlightenment was parallel to the liberalism that fueled the Bill of rights.

The economy determines how well families live or how much money the government has allocated to take care of the country. The economy can impact the pace of new technology or drive the prices up or down which relate to politic decisions. The economy is the primary indicator of how well a  society can live.

The Age of Enlightenment was an innovative cultural movement represented by the intellectuals in the 18th century. The reform used reasoning instead of faith based decisions or perspective embracing the sciences. Opposed superstition and uncontrolled church and state. This era began circa 1700. The origins of Enlightenment begin with Descartes, Discourse on Method publication in 1637, however others believe Enlightenment started in Britain. The Age of Enlightenment also had an impact on Poland, Austria and Germany and the polish followed in the 1700s. In the 18th Century Enlightenment declined with the Third Partition of Poland.

The Puritans  were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries which included English Calvinists. The Puritans were a reflection of the Religious wars because they were some of the first revolting  and disagreeing with decisions of the state. In the eyes of the Puritans the King has gone against society but more insulting going against God which lead to the Religious wars in the 1600s. The Puritans were responsible for bringing the religious beliefs and news to the world in the Age of the Discovery. Puritans gain political power which produced a great awakening during the Commercial revolutions.

The late 1600s saw the evolution of the ‘standing’ or ‘professional’ army. What was this, how and why did it develop?  Who had the best one?  Why?  How does this influence politics in tis period? A standing army is a professional army that is a permanent fixture in a country to state or region. The soldiers are full time and remain active at all times during the 1600. Ancient Rome has the first standing armies. Rome was considered the best standing armies in history. In the 1600 standing armies represent power and conquest of other regions based on the reputation of the standing armies in Europe. King James II had effective standing armies that later control the British colonies

Mercantilism is an economic system in Europe during the period of monarchies which was the rise of the abolitionist states. The timeline is from 1600 to 1843: In 1600 Mercantilism to 1619 Jean Baptist to 1621 Thomas Munn to 1632 John Locke Born, 1694 Francis Quesnay Born,1803 Jean Baptise to 1843 John Stuart Mill System of Logic. Locke describes how he became involved in his current mode of philosophical thinking. He relates an anecdote about a conversation with friends that made him realize that men often suffer in their pursuit of knowledge because they fail to determine the limits of their understanding(Sparknotes,2012).

Mercantilism is related to capitalism because when the government controls the foreign trade capitalism will always follow which means private ownership means profit to the  owner as a free market. Within Western Christianity the Protestants Reformation is related to capitalism because religious power brings on ownership, anytime ownership of a country or colony or foreign trade, it will have owner that will prosper like the Enlightenment and Scientist Revolutions states in history. All were related to capitalism and was responsible for driving free markets for business owners.

Yes, the true wars were based on the differences of religion but also difference in appearance. Modern Racism is closely related to Enlightenment as far back to the early 1500s that believe that anyone that was not of light skin was not accepted. The statues in those times are clearly representative of racism because each group had different features that made a particular race either accepted or rejected because their looks did not match the region. For example Different Races  of Man and Spirits of Laws both talked about natural differences of race that impact the period.

Modern globalization is a part of growth but along with reaching other continents the Columbian Exchange brings disease. One goes with the other no matter what era. The European and Muslim pilgrimages  that produced cholera, the Ottoman Empire with the cases of malaria or the diseases of the sanitary zone in Eastern Poland.

The Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Law influenced the Founding Fathers of the United States and philosophy was used by Alexis de Tocqueville. Yes Montesquieu would have agreed with the interpretation of his ideas that it is necessary to have multiple diverse types of people which should have diverse types of governments. As quoted by Montesquieu “There should be three governments and all others  can be classified as one of the three, which are Monarchial, Republic or Despotic”.

According to Kelly(2012),” The idea of the social contract is one of the foundations of the American political system”. The Social Contract is theory that summarizes the best way to set up political communities to solve commercial issues. Social Contract has a simplified definition: We are live and think under the same Divine being and direction and everyone is a part of the whole. In political terms Social Contract means  or determines whether there is a legitimate political leader or authority and all participants must be free. In contrast Montesquieu lean towards government control not the individual with freedoms. The Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Law influenced the Founding Fathers of the United States and philosophy was used by Alexis de Tocqueville. Yes Montesquieu would have agreed with the interpretation of his ideas that it is necessary to have multiple diverse types of people which should have diverse types of governments. As quoted by Montesquieu “There should be three governments and all others  can be classified as one of the three, which are Monarchial, Republic or Despotic”. They are different because one believes in individual having control and the other believes in diverse government controls. As quoted by Montesquieu,” In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing.” Quote by Rousseau” Every man having been born free and master of himself, no one else may under any pretext whatever subject him without his consent. To assert that the son of a slave is born a slave is to assert that he is not born a man” from Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, Bk. VI, Ch. 2

A quote from Kant “enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity.” Furthermore, he added that “Immaturity is the inability to use one understands without guidance from another”. Kants statement is true today because guardians, leaders, parents all put limits on how much a person can grow. They put confines and fences that prevent this from reaching the next level of knowledge.

According to Roland(2012), “is an essay on English: An essay on crimes and punishments” The Cesares an Essay on Crimes and Punishments was against the death penalty believing that the penal system needed to be re-hauls and it was cruel. Basically, the state does not have the right to take lives. This is a quote from Cesare “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detest and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?” The contrast of Montesquieu Spirit of the Laws pertains to government decisions to be accepted and more diverse government is better which is different from Cesare. As quoted by Montesquieu “There should be three governments and all others  can be classified as one of the three, which are Monarchial, Republic or Despotic”. They are different because one believes in individual having control and the other believes in diverse government controls”.

Equiano excerpt are similar to Winston Churchhill essay.  Quote by Winston Churchill “Still, if you will not fight for the right when you can easily win without bloodshed, if you will not fight when your victory will be sure and not so costly, you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a precarious chance for survival. There may be a worse case. You may have to fight when there is no chance of victory, because it is better to perish than to live as slaves.”

David Humes is human’s theory of morality. We are incapable of making of making logical decisions or the imperfections of human judgment. According to Hume “people will almost never surrender their natural beliefs in the existence of  an external world that is separate from  their perceptions. John Locke has philosophical views on the mind which is different from Human who concentrates on human nature. According to John Locke” no principle is actually accepted by every human being”.

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find a route to India (in order to trade for spices). He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492-1504.(Enchanted Learning(2010). Columbus thought the new world was raw and savage. It was different and he felt the land and people were  primitive walking around naked most of the time. Yes, he was a good man that was following orders from his county to explore. The agriculture and spices they took from the lands hand nothing to do with his character. Christopher Columbus was still a religious man but his loyalty was to his country. Quote “I am a most noteworthy sinner, but I have cried out to the Lord for grace and mercy, and they have covered me completely. I have found the sweetest consolation since I made it my whole purpose to enjoy His marvelous Presence”.

Columbus was traveling to discover new lands but Ibn Battuta for the enrichment and understanding of different cultures. Once was for his country and one was for spiritual fulfillment. Ibn Battuta had the best travel because he traveled all over the world in comfort not always on the seas. Ibn Battuta was a better historian because he was sharing not only his experiences but the richness of each cultures he visited giving more descriptive details. Columbus was just recording his visit and Ibn was telling a story. Quote by Ibn “Traveling leaves you speechless then turns you into a storyteller”.

William Rubrick writings were different from both Columbus and Ibn Battula because he was on a planned trip for 3 years. He had time to prepare for the writing in a logical and very descriptive way. Rubrick began writing before he started the journey therefore, his accounting of the travels were more like a full book on the travels to Russia. Rubick quotes says” its was the travel that brought out the most detailed and valuable to his writings”Rubick was motivated by his own culture to write not because of country like Columbus.

It was Samir Amin’s Eurocentrism that the most Eurocentric. They would have been an excellent trip because Samir knew he was documenting history. When documenting history you tend to see everything in the world and it comes out in your writings. Quote by Samir “my ability to demonstrate that ‘Europe’ is a culturalist construction that masquerades as universal”.

The themes both have the historical factors very accurate but one them seems be from the immediate past and the other them seems to be farther back in time discussing the past. They have similar of being very descriptive and documenting the era with factual information not unresearched authors. The references in both themes are credible.

References

Enchanted learning.(2010).Christopher Columbus. Retrieved from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/page/c/columbus.shtml

Kelly.(2012).Social contract. Retrieved from http://americanhistory.about.com/od/usconstitution/g/social_contract.htm

Roland,J.(2012). Of crimes and punishments. Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/cb/crim_pun.htm

Sparksnotes.(2012). John Locke. Retrieved from http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/johnlocke/section1.html

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