Back to School Offer

Get 20% of Your First Order amount back in Reward Credits!

Get 20% of Your First Orderback in Rewards

All papers examples
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)
HIRE A WRITER!
Paper Types
Disciplines
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)

Alcoholism and Depression, Research Paper Example

Pages: 6

Words: 1783

Research Paper

Outline

Introduction

Literature Review

Conclusion

 

Abstract

This scholarly research encompasses an exploration into a mental health issue (depression) from the perspective of the consumer and significant others. An in-depth analysis from recent literature will be conducted exposing the effect depression can have on alcoholism addiction. Importantly, is depression a consequence of alcoholism or alcoholism a consequence of depression is the research question to be resolved in this scholarly presentation. Also an investigation of relevant interprofessional treatment/intervention related to outcomes will be embraced.

Introduction

Alcohol addiction is a concept used in describing compulsive excessive use of alcohol beverages. From a medical perspective it is considered a disease which must be addressed and treated through scientific interventions. In psychiatric medicine and nursing alternative concepts such as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence are applied in differentiating the extent of the addiction. However, in 1979 World Health Organization expert research committee discouraged using the terminology, alcoholism in preference to ‘alcohol dependence syndrome.’ An estimates 140 million people internationally are affected by ‘alcohol dependence syndrome’ (Sutton, 2008).

Depression is described as low mood and it can occur at different levels within an individual’s personality. Essentially, the mood disruption creates feelings of hopelessness; emptiness; unworthiness, helplessness; irritability and to some extent disillusionment. Psychologists argue that depression emerges as a response mechanism to stress. In some situations people find it difficult to cope with the everyday demands of life, especially, when financial crises become overwhelming. Consequently, they may sink into a temporary state of depression until the crisis is resolved (Rashid & Heider, 2008).

However, if the situation is not resolved quickly individuals tend to go into a deeper state of depression whereby they seek to fill the void by engaging in unhealthy practices such as excessive alcohol drinking; promiscuous sexual activities or simply become suicidal engage in excessive sleeping. Consequently, further warning signs are observed when there is loss of appetite; loss of interest in activities which were pleasurable. Psychiatrists content that mood depression is not a psychiatric disorder. However, it can progress into clinical depression which is a psychiatric disorder (Rashid & Heider, 2008). The question explored in this scholarly research asks is depression a consequence of alcoholism or alcoholism a consequence of depression as consumer perceptions and interprofessional interventions are researched.

Literature Review

Depression effects on alcoholism

Maurizio Pompili, Gianluca Serafini and Marco Innamorat (2010) conducted studies investigating ‘Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse.’ These researchers conducted a literature review retrieving studies from MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. They advanced that multiple prototypes could be identified as cor-related features between alcohol addiction and suicide. Further they advanced the assumption starting, ‘Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior’ (Pompili, et.al, 2010, p 1392).

Ultimately, it was communicated that these disorders could impact drinking patterns to the extent of producing alcohol addiction. They advocate that alcoholics with depression should be screened for other psychiatric disorders.  Researchers further established form meta-analysis that there is a positive link between alcohol use and suicide which was documented in aggregate studies of alcohol consumption internationally (Pompili, et.al, 2010).

Additionally in relating alcohol use to suicide and ultimately depression these researchers discovered applying a sociological paradigm including the hypothesis ‘that acute alcohol use leads to increased social deterioration and anomie, unemployment, debts, and social isolation’ (Pompili, et.al, 2010, p 1392). These are the same social predispositions for depression. Biologically alcohol, use influences and creates impaired physical and mental functioning. Also, alcohol interactions with other psychotropic drugs worsen the incidence of depression and suicidal tendencies. Alternatively, it was revealed from this literature review that alcohol acts to temporarily eliminate physiological barriers to self-harm. However, when the effects of alcohol are over patients can sink into recurring depressive states again (Pompili, et.al, 2010).

Depression from the consumer and significant others perspective

Roger Carswell (2013) offered a consumer perspective of depression in his article, ‘Treasures of Darkness- Depression a personal point of view.’ The author/ patient admits that depression often emerges during a crisis when some finds it difficult to cope when situations of daily living. He referenced pastor Charles Spurgeon who went into depression after seven people died during a stampede during one of his worship services. Also, poet William Cowper, who sunk into manic depression after his works were not being published and he became suicidal. When he was stuck with depression as a young man he turned to Christianity for solace instead of alcohol (Carswell, 2013).

Drs. Richard Schulz and Paula Sherwood (2008) conducted research regarding ‘Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Caregiving’ in patients with depression. Caregiving they advanced contained all the features of a chronic stress experience. First physical and psychological pressure develops when care giving extend over long periods. In cases of depression the patient’s behavior is highly unpredictability and uncontrollability depending on the mood swings experienced on a daily basis (Schulz & Sherwood, 2008).

    Importantly, caregiver stress has the ability to affect other areas of the person’s life which secondary stress affecting work performance and family relationships. Consequently, people taking care of chronic depression patients ought to pay attention to their own health because they too could become depressed. Empirically, the doctors concluded that caregiving is detrimental to one’s health. Inevitably, patients suffering from depression could be challenging to significant others as well as caregiver. However, persons responsible for the daily management of depressed patients ought to have regular psychological evaluations too (Schulz & Sherwood, 2008). Alcoholism effect on depression

Alfredo Gea, Juan J Beunza and Ramón Estruch (2013) advanced views after conducting studies pertaining to ‘Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study.’  They did follow-up evaluations of 5,505 men and women considered high risk alcoholics. The sample was between the ages of 55-80 years old being participants in a PREDIMED trial. It lasted seven years. At the beginning there was no history of depression in any of them. Also, there was no history of alcohol related health problems (Gea et.al, 2013).

A validated food frequency questionnaire containing 137 items were administered to participants annually by a dietician. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate individual alcohol intake. Classification of participant embodied incident cases of depression in the event anti depression drugs were initiated or a new diagnosis of clinical depression was made. Results revealed that moderate wine consumption reduces depression, but heavy drinkers are at high risk of becoming depressed due to excessive alcohol consumption (Gea et.al, 2013).

Another study conducted by Jennie R Stevenson Jason P Schroeder and Kimberly Nixon  (2009) revealed that abstinence following alcohol drinking produces Depression-Like behavior and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. The researchers used animal samples (mice) to conduct their study. Two groups of mice participated in a 28 day trial. One group was fed alcohol and the other water. After repeated testing and exposures researchers concluded that even though there are insufficient preclinical studies of humans supportive of their conclusions they were convinced alcohol withdrawal is associated acute depression (Stevenson, Schroeder and Nixon, 2009).

 Interprofessional treatment/intervention

Washington’s Student Assistance Intervention Services Program Manual offers suggestions for interprofessional treatment/ intervention strategies in addressing all forms of substance abuse and its mental health consequences. Execution of the Washington model encompasses two assumptions; first, ‘the intensity of the intervention must be commensurate with severity or intensity of the problem behavior and secondly effectiveness and efficiency of the individual student system depends on the effectiveness and efficiency of the school wide system’ (Grunenfelder et.al, 2012, p 22). Major suggestions are addressing alcohol and substance abuse along its mental health complication from the premise of prevention rather than cure (Grunenfelder et.al, 2012).

Consequently, screening and intervention begins within the school system as early as elementary through to high school. At each level there are specific rationales guiding the program. The interprofessional approach collaborates community services such as churches, youth organizations as well as public health nurses, school nurses; religious leaders; school counselors; social workers and teachers (Grunenfelder et.al, 2012).

Likewise, David A Richards, Jacqueline J Hill and Linda Gask (2013) have provided evidence based data produced from studies on ‘Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial to verify that collaborative care has persistent and long lasting effects above usual care or one focused on a single provider approach (Richards et.al, 2013).

The setting encompassed 51 primary care practices in three primary care districts in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and eighty one participants 18 years and older were recruited for the study. They had to be diagnosed with depression disorder. Patients with associating bipolar schizophrenia and psychosis were excluded from the study. Interprofessional collaborative intervention included depression education, behavioral activation, drug management, primary care liason and relapse prevention, and primary care liaison. Care managers involved in the interventions. The program lasted 14 weeks utilizing were six to 12 contact hours with each participant. Mental health specialists reinforced the intervention through their supervision. Usual participants were managed only by psychiatrists (Richards et.al, 2013).

Conclusion

This scholarly research encompassed an exploration into a mental health issue (depression) from the perspective of the consumer and significant others. An in-depth analysis from recent literature was conducted exposing the effect depression can have on alcoholism addiction and vise versa. Importantly, the question is depression a consequence of alcoholism or alcoholism a consequence of depression was to be the research question to be resolved in this scholarly presentation. Finally, an investigation of relevant interprofessional treatment/intervention related to outcomes was embraced.

In relation to the research question posed, while empirical evidence existed showing a relationship between alcohol and depression there were no precise studies from the literature review distinguishing which really influenced each other. As such, answers to this question is inconclusive.

References

Carswell, R. (2013). Treasures of Darkness- Depression a personal point of view. The Evangelist

Gea, A.  Beunza, J., &  Estruch, R. (2013). Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study. BMC Med.  11, 192.

Grunenfelder, D. Johnson, M. Maike, M., & Schutte, K. (2012). Washington’s Student  Assistance Intervention Services Program Manual. Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Pompili, M.  Serafini G., & Innamorat, M. (2010). Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 7(4), 1392–1431

Rashid, T., & Heider, I. (2008). Life Events and Depression. Annals of Punjab MedicalCollege, 2  (1), 23-32

Richards, D. Hill, J., &  Gask, L. (2013). Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 347: f4913.

 Schulz, R., & Sherwood, P. (2008). Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Caregiving. Am J Nurs.  108(9 Suppl), 23–27.

Stevenson, J. Schroeder, J., & Nixon, K. (2009).  Abstinence following Alcohol Drinking Produces Depression-Like Behavior and Reduced Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology.  34(5), 1209–1222.

Sutton, M. (2008). Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Encyclopedia of Catholic Social Thought, Social Science, and Social Policy.  Toronto, Canada

Time is precious

Time is precious

don’t waste it!

Get instant essay
writing help!
Get instant essay writing help!
Plagiarism-free guarantee

Plagiarism-free
guarantee

Privacy guarantee

Privacy
guarantee

Secure checkout

Secure
checkout

Money back guarantee

Money back
guarantee

Related Research Paper Samples & Examples

What Can Be Learned From the History of the Marshall Plan About the Importance of the United States, Research Paper Example

Introduction After the ending of the Second World War in 1945 Europe was changed forever and began a transformation of re-construction of buildings, culture and [...]

Pages: 8

Words: 2098

Research Paper

What Is the Future of the Canadian Economy as the Government Ends Stimulus Spending, Research Paper Example

Q1 |  Jim Flaherty, The Federal Minister of Finance for the Canadian Government expressed the following economic ideology on the ending of stimulus spending :-  [...]

Pages: 6

Words: 1595

Research Paper

Relationships Between Nursing Concepts, Research Paper Example

Abstract In the field of nursing, the major components come together in an almost limitless number of ways. The nurse, the environment, the state of [...]

Pages: 4

Words: 1091

Research Paper

PepsiCo Supply Chain, Research Paper Example

Abstract Supply chain management is an ongoing process that must constantly be evaluated and adjusted to enable corporations to improve efficiency and decrease costs.  Currently, [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1432

Research Paper

Hearing-impaired Children, Research Paper Example

When parents have a child with hearing impairment, they are presented with a variety of challenges regarding their child’s social, physical, and academic development.  Hearing [...]

Pages: 10

Words: 2815

Research Paper

Crime Pattern Analysis, Research Paper Example

Abstract Crime Pattern Analysis is discussed within the context of Criminal Justice.  A brief definition exploring the concept of Crime Pattern Analysis and the theoretical [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 782

Research Paper

What Can Be Learned From the History of the Marshall Plan About the Importance of the United States, Research Paper Example

Introduction After the ending of the Second World War in 1945 Europe was changed forever and began a transformation of re-construction of buildings, culture and [...]

Pages: 8

Words: 2098

Research Paper

What Is the Future of the Canadian Economy as the Government Ends Stimulus Spending, Research Paper Example

Q1 |  Jim Flaherty, The Federal Minister of Finance for the Canadian Government expressed the following economic ideology on the ending of stimulus spending :-  [...]

Pages: 6

Words: 1595

Research Paper

Relationships Between Nursing Concepts, Research Paper Example

Abstract In the field of nursing, the major components come together in an almost limitless number of ways. The nurse, the environment, the state of [...]

Pages: 4

Words: 1091

Research Paper

PepsiCo Supply Chain, Research Paper Example

Abstract Supply chain management is an ongoing process that must constantly be evaluated and adjusted to enable corporations to improve efficiency and decrease costs.  Currently, [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1432

Research Paper

Hearing-impaired Children, Research Paper Example

When parents have a child with hearing impairment, they are presented with a variety of challenges regarding their child’s social, physical, and academic development.  Hearing [...]

Pages: 10

Words: 2815

Research Paper

Crime Pattern Analysis, Research Paper Example

Abstract Crime Pattern Analysis is discussed within the context of Criminal Justice.  A brief definition exploring the concept of Crime Pattern Analysis and the theoretical [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 782

Research Paper

Get a Free E-Book ($50 in value)

Get a Free E-Book

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!