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AQ and Smoke Management Resources in Tennessee, Research Paper Example

Pages: 21

Words: 5879

Research Paper

Introduction

Tennessee is currently suffering serious environmental challenges, especially in its metropolitan area. Contemporary environmental quality legislation started in the 1960s. Long sections of river basins, like the Ocoee, were declared “dead,” and the air quality in Chattanooga was so poor that motorists had to use their headlamps throughout the day. At the same time, clarity in Nashville was limited to less than 90 meters, especially on bad days. To resolve these enormous challenges, a slew of federal and state environmental protection laws were enacted starting in the mid-1960s (Gaulding, 2021). The National Environmental Policy Act was enacted by Congress in 1969, prompting President Richard Nixon to create the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Gaulding, 2021). Several federal environmental policies were implemented, employing a “management & control” framework to solve huge, clear problems. During the 1960s and 1970s, the state passed several state laws, legislation, licensing initiatives, surveillance systems, and extensive monitoring and certification mechanisms.

The Stream Pollution Control Board was established by the Tennessee General Assembly in 1945, making Tennessee the first state in the South to enact a water pollution regulation policy. This board launched preventative measures to protect waterways and build a system of wastewater treatment plants. In 1971, Tennessee enacted the state Water Quality Act, which created the Water Quality Control Board. In 1972, Congress passed the federal Clean Water Act (Stern & Professor, 2019). Tennessee legislators enacted the Tennessee Solid Waste Disposal Act in 1969, granting the state responsibility to control local dumpsites and monitor solid waste disposal. In 1991, a new Solid Waste Management Act was enacted. The Air Quality Act, the Scenic Rivers Act, the Scenic Trails Act, and the Natural Areas Act were also enacted by the local government to protect the quality of the air and encourage recreation and resource management. The formation of the state parks department was among the most major developments in Tennessee’s environmental protection since 1900. The State Government Reorganization Act of 1937 formed a Department of Conservation in the Executive Branch. The same year, another legislation was enacted that placed administration of all state regions utilized as conservation areas, historic sites, or recreation under the purview of the Department of Conservation’s Division of Parks. The Tennessee State Parks department now has 55 parks covering over 65,000 hectares (Gaulding, 2021). In 1991, the present Department of Environment and Conservation was established. The department includes the environmental initiatives initially controlled by the Department of Health and Environment and the majority of the activities that the Department of Conservation earlier managed.

The Environmental Protection Agency’s Air, Climate, and Energy Research Division are at the leading edge of air quality studies to safeguard the environment and public health. The study lays the science-based groundwork for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), states, and cities to make an informed decision about how to efficiently and successfully minimize and regulate air pollution (Altshuler, 2020). In 1970, Congress enacted the Clean Air Act Legislative changes, leading to the formation of the country’s air quality standards (Tebbens, 2020). Today, the Clean Air Act strives to reduce air pollutants and safeguard the health of American families and the workforce. Fewer early deaths and diseases imply better lifespans, improved quality of life, reduced hospital bills, lower academic absences, and higher worker efficiency for Americans. According to peer-reviewed research, the legislation has been a favourable economic investment for the United States. Quality air and a thriving economy have co-existed since 1970. The law has established potential markets that have encouraged innovation in environmentally friendly technologies, in which the United States has emerged as a global powerhouse.

Presently, lawmakers and air quality administrators depend on cutting-edge science to develop regulatory requirements and make managerial decisions to minimize and regulate pollution levels using cost-effective methods. The EPA’s Air, Climate, and Energy Research Division undertake research, generating research results and driving innovations critical to understanding air pollution. Every five years, EPA scientific researchers integrate and analyze studies on the major pollutants to assess the effectiveness of air regulatory frameworks. The research effort takes an innovative and multidisciplinary approach to the challenge of air pollution. Highly respected EPA researchers, engineering technicians, and physicians cooperate and team up with environmental scientists from all over the world to discuss the several challenges of air quality monitoring. This report explores the air quality and smoke management resources available to land management agencies in Tennessee State.

Review of Evidence

Tennessee State Implementation Plans

Tennessee is among the most biodiversity landlocked countries in the United States. Volunteer State includes lush and valleys in the southern Appalachian Mountains, rolling hills and idyllic landscapes in central Tennessee, and the rich plains of the Mississippi River. It is the responsibility of the Tennessee Environmental Protection Agency to protect these natural resources and the well-being and safety of Tennessee residents from environmental hazards (Hawthorne et al., 2021). The Department for Environment and Water has legal and ethical obligations to protect and improve Tennessee’s air, land and water quality. This department fulfils its duty by managing regulatory initiatives that establish air, water and soil quality standards. It supports industries and people in areas ranging from recreation to waste management through various initiatives to catalog, interpret and protect Tennessee’s rich natural, historical and archaeological heritage.

Departmental initiatives and programs encourage environmental stewardship for individuals and businesses, education for residents and controlled communities on natural resource matters, and robust and operational application of state and federal environmental laws. This department also manages the Tennessee State Park System, one of the state’s greatest treasures. Tennessee has 55 state parks, offering various recreational opportunities and experiences with nearly 30 million visits annually (Turner, 2018). Whether it is a quiet hike in the woods, a safe and friendly campground for families, a natural environment for business meetings, or a good night’s sleep in a modern inn, people find everything in Tennessee parks. Unique areas with unusual or unusual flora and fauna or other ecological topographies are designated as the state’s natural areas. As of 2007, Tennessee has 78 natural regions, totaling over 45,000 hectares (Smith et al., 2019). While state natural areas are designated and controlled to protect the natural resources available, state parks are controlled for many purposes, including recreation. Tennessee Public Parks and nature reserves are economic enablers for the societies they border and the entire state, in addition to preserving natural resources. The department’s work is all closely attributed to Tennessee’s economic well-being. Households and enterprises are attracted to Tennessee for its plentiful, safe water, naturally beautiful landscapes, and vicinity to the Southeast’s industrial cities. Meeting increased environmental conservation requirements while ensuring a robust and developing economy necessitates balance and innovative approaches to intricate, ever-changing concerns.

The Air Pollution Control Department maintains the purity of Tennessee’s air resources and protects people’s health, well-being, general welfare, and material property while maintaining maximum application and promoting the state’s industrial development. The department directly operates in 89 counties in the state and monitors (Smith et al., 2019). It supports the operations of Shelby, Knox, Hamilton, and Davidson counties, which have their own regional air pollution control initiatives. The department establishes emission standards and process requirements to oversee the state’s industry through assigning construction and operational permits. The Tennessee Air Pollution Control Commission was established to implement air pollution control and mitigation, adopt regulations, hold public hearings, and initiate proceedings to enforce the regulations. Employees of the department act as the governing body of the board of directors. Other duties include steering source visits and compliance assessments, creating cases of enforcement of regulatory violations, maintaining surveillance of state air sampling stations, conducting and observing chimney tests, and certifying individuals as visible emission leaders. Also, the collection and distribution of relevant information to fight air pollution.

Air Sensor Monitors

In Tennessee State, air sensor monitors that are less expensive, compact, and typically convenient to use than governmental monitors are widely used to analyze air quality conditions. For technology companies, air quality managers, civilian researchers, and the general public, the EPA site offers the most recent scientific knowledge on the performance, functionality, and use of air sensor monitoring devices. The EPA is concerned with the development of air sensing technologies, such as sensor device performance reviews and practice guidelines for efficient sensor use (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). The data can assist the public in learning further about air quality in their towns and cities. The EPA has created several tutorial platforms to inform the public about air quality, general well-being, and low-cost sensors. The content is available in English and Spanish, which can be used to understand how the EPA gathers and utilizes air quality data, how to share information on air quality health risks, and how to evaluate collected data using air sensors. Many users are searching for reliable air quality data to minimize air pollution risk and safeguard their regions’ public health (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). Air sensors are typically less expensive, compact, and convenient to use than the administrative air pollution monitoring devices used in Tennessee to assess air quality conditions. Due to increased availability, many air sensors are now in use by people, community organizations, health agencies, and others. Because of their low cost and compactness, these sensors can assess air pollution in a range of areas, including major pollution hotspots, which are of interest to several groups (Smith et al., 2019). However, the popularity of these gadgets has raised several questions about using and conveying the data captured during monitoring. The videos provide answers to frequently asked questions about these gadgets.

Dispersion Modeling Basics

One of the several regulatory activities that are part of the authorizing process includes computer simulations of air pollutant emissions from the source and predicts the resulting air pollution concentration in the leeward region of the source (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). The procedure is often referred to as distributed modeling or permission modeling, and the expected concentration is commonly referred to as “impact” (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). Tennessee’s Air Pollution Control Department employs personnel trained to perform distributed modeling examinations to simulate the impact of proposed sources on the state’s air quality (Turner, 2018). These staff also review distributed modeling analysis of key sources submitted by the company or its environmental experts. After the authorized staff determine that the source’s actual and possible emissions are within the sources calculated emission limits (also known as permissible emissions), the Department’s modeler will determine the source’s emissions. It is responsible for assessing its impact on the environmental community. Department modellers often provide modelling analysis of small rather than large sources. Owners of proposed larger wells, called “large” wells, often need to submit a dispersion model analysis that predicts the effects of air pollution when submitting a building permit application to the Department.

To forecast “ambient impacts,” dispersion modelers utilize USEPA-approved simulation tools (pollutant concentrations in the zone next to the facility where the source is located) (Turner, 2018). Following the prediction of ambient impacts, the Department’s modelers evaluate if the effects may cause or make a substantial contribution to any anticipated variation of an air quality standard for pollutant concentrations or satisfactory ambient level for HAPs (Turner, 2018). Ambient air quality criteria and appropriate ambient levels are pollutants minimum standards that should not be surpassed by projected or evaluated ambient concentration levels to avoid serious health consequences on society citizens or harmful environmental impacts on the health of the society’s natural resources (Turner, 2018). National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are formed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the criteria air pollutants and acknowledged by local and state air quality departments as the maximum air pollution levels that can be assessed or projected in society before society is classified as a Non-Attainment Area (NAA).

Prescribed Burning

Prescribed burning is a valuable land management tool with numerous advantages (Altshuler, 2020). Prescribed burning can decrease the total size of a prospective wildfire, and the related toxic emissions and smoke-related health consequences, while also benefiting public safety, the environment, and the Tennessee economy. Smoke from prescribed fires contains dust particles, ozone precursor chemicals, and other air pollutants. To reduce the community environmental and health effects of smoke from prescribed burning, the Division of Air Pollution Control suggests that anyone using prescribed fire use the acceptable Basic Smoke Management Practices (Altshuler, 2020). Prescribed burning is among the most effective and less expensive tools for natural forest management, fuel reduction, site planning, and wildlife habitat growth accessible to forest departments in the Southeast. It is increasingly depended on and used across the southern Pine Belt. With all its good and positive impacts, burning also has a prospective detrimental impact — smoke. It is impossible to burn without generating some amount of smoke. In the lack of wind, this smoke will affect the region downwind of the fire spot or down drainage. The extent of this effect is determined by how much thought the burner has given to obvious risks and any prevention. Every year, tens of thousands of hectares of pine are planted in Mississippi. This acreage, combined with initially cultivated and natural stands, amounts to a huge number of land area that could be burned annually (Altshuler, 2020). To meet this requirement, burners must evaluate the implications of smoke and develop strategies to mitigate it as much as possible. To do less would open the door to potential regulatory requirements severely limiting or outright prohibiting prescribed burning. These alternatives should not be overlooked. Other legislative bodies have considered a total ban and strict limits on prescribed burning. It is critical to be able to burn more than is required. It is more helpful to be able to burn at all.

Prescribed Burning in Tennessee

Iowa State Implementation Plan

The Clean Air Act requires Iowa to establish State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for new or amended National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Particle pollution (particle pollution), surface ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead are the six main particulate emissions regulated by the Clean Air Act. These are referred to as “criteria” air contaminants since the Environmental Protection Agency establishes the environment and health metrics for determining the amount of these contaminants that are acceptable in the ambient air (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021). These are known as secondary and primary standards. Emission control tools can minimize pollution by cleaning exhaust and dirty air before it is released from the facility. To clean dirty air, a wide range of tools can be used. Engineers from the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) carefully examine and evaluate how these control systems might function, and the techniques and criteria are incorporated into a license – a key duty conducted by the DNR (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021). Other than using emission control tools, there are other solutions to minimize pollution, such as avoiding pollution in the first place. By imposing specifications on how things are done, air quality permits to minimize, decrease, or inhibit pollution as much as possible. Licenses can determine the quantity, category, or quality of gasoline or other material used in a particular process. A license, for instance, might set a maximum percentage of sulfur that can exist in coal to minimize sulfur dioxide emissions. A license may determine the number of toxic materials in a vast volume of paint, diluents, adhesive, or other component used during industrial production. By stating smokestack height and other variables, licenses can significantly reduce the effects of emitted toxic elements on local air. Technicians from the DNR can also set combustion requirements to reduce emissions. For instance, the combustion conditions in the kiln can be changed to greatly lower nitrogen oxide forming. The temperature of the burner can be altered, as can the length of time air remains in the combustion process and the mixing rate of fuel and air. These alternatives are frequently reviewed and researched, and better decisions are made based on cost, plant layout, and various other factors.

Prescribed Fire

Managing smoke produced by regulated fires has become important in planning regulated fire events in recent years. Depending on the situation, smoke management planning can be more complex than planning for a regulatory fire itself. Considerations such as air pollution, human and animal health and safety, and reduced visibility must be carefully considered, even when planning a small routine regulatory burn. Smoke is a cloud of small particles carried into the air by the heat generated by burning fuel (plants and other materials) in a fire (Blades et al., 2020). The smoke produced by a particular fire depends on the types of fuels burned, how wet or hard those fuels are, the type of fire (backfire, head fire), the time of year, and even weather conditions. All these elements work together to impact the relative size of particulate matter, which can generate smoke of varying densities and human, animal, and environmental health and safety issues. Besides, one of the most vital concerns when designing a regulated fire is how the smoke produced by the regulated fire affects the characteristics of the landscape surrounding the fire area in Iowa State. Homes, businesses, and streets are clear examples of smoke-sensitive areas. Smoke in any of these places can cause health and safety issues for people who live, work or travel there. Burning in or near cities and towns can be particularly complex and challenging, as the concentration of people and traffic can make it difficult to find situations that prevent or limit the effects of smoke (Liu et al., 2018). In addition, urban areas generally manage ventilation systems that can inhale smoke. Metropolitan areas are often designated as containment basins, and combustion in these areas most often requires approval from federal, state, and local regulators. The Iowa countryside contains many similar smoke-sensitive areas in more typical urban environments. Controlled ventilation systems are common in most modern animal production facilities and can be affected by smoke. Smoke and damage to both transmission lines and firefighters can adversely affect power and communications transmission lines. High-density particulate matter in the smoke can cause arc discharges between high-voltage power lines, short-circuit them, and risk electric shock to people and vehicles below.

Air Sensor

Air sensor standard operating procedures (SOPs) are written in step-by-step procedures that outline how to accomplish routine activities consistently. EPA experts have developed numerous air sensor SOPs assessed or used in field projects. These steps can support the use of the device (Turner, 2018).  In recent years, many air quality sensors have been on the market. Some have broad user manuals, and others do not. Anyway, the documentation may not provide user-specific details about all the day-to-day activities that need to be performed consistently, such as where to save the data during the download (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). EPA researchers regularly create SOPs for sensor assessment efforts and other field projects to record such details. Also, use the SOP to document observations about the sensor or sensor data, how to verify proper behavior, how to download or log the data, troubleshooting guidelines, and cleaning or calibration processes. The DNR Colocation Instruction Guide is a resource intended to help air sensor users learn the significance of collocation assessment and the steps required for successful collocation. This process helps users understand the data generated by air sensors and government monitors. Citizens, societies, scientists, and others can now collect their air quality data through the availability of air quality sensors. While air sensors can assess much of the same contaminants as more expensive, well-characterized compliance monitoring devices, they are frequently used for non-regulatory application areas that do not necessitate the same stringent precision and reliability standards. The similarity of sensor data with coordinated Federal Reference Method/Federal Equivalent Method (FRM/FEM) compliance monitor data is an essential first step in understanding the integrity of the information generated.

Although the use of air sensors to measure air quality has increased dramatically, it is a well-known fact that the quality of sensor data varies significantly. It is difficult to understand how air sensor data is compared to regulated air monitoring device data due to the lack of a consistent test protocol for assessing air sensor performance (Gaulding, 2021). The Iowa Department of Natural Resources recognizes that air sensors can be useful in various unregulated applications, including or it can help locate the regulatory monitor. DNR has been involved in various activities to deepen the understanding of air sensors. The first effort was from field experts, air sensor manufacturers, air pollution regulators, and other stakeholders on the cutting edge of air sensor technology, potential methods to setting performance goals and standards. Included two workshops to collect—also, insights from other organizations setting performance goals for measurement technology.

Dispersion Modeling

Air dispersion modelling analyses are carried out to forecast ground-level ambient air pollution concentrations from facility emission levels. “A building or provisional license is issued when the director confirms that the projected pollution from the presented source or amendment, in connection with all other emission levels, will not restrict the accomplishment or preservation of the ambient air quality standards stipulated in 567-Chapter 28,” as per 567 Iowa Administrative Code (IAC) subrule 22.3 (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021). According to (Turner 2018), the main tool used in air quality analyses to estimate fulfilment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards is dispersion modeling (NAAQS). Air dispersion modeling determines the effects of a source before it is built or adapted, and it is not limited by the temporal or spatial restrictions of an ambient monitor. These rules should be followed to help complete air dispersion modeling assessments. The DNR determines the need to model a non-PSD project on a particular scenario basis. Form MD specifies how the DNR will evaluate when modeling assessments are needed. This form is voluntary, but it can assist applicants in determining whether modeling will be required air (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021). People refer to Form MD in Air Dispersion Modeling Determination to ascertain if a modeling evaluation is necessary air (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021).

Form MD does not clarify certain situations that may necessitate a modeling assessment. Instances of these are provided in the form’s instructions. DNR management will examine suggestions for modeling evaluations that fall beyond this procedure. All applicants may develop and submit a comprehensive dispersion modeling analysis per these recommendations. When the applicant fails to submit a modeling analysis, the DNR will perform the dispersion modeling. When dispersion modeling is needed, the State agency either conducts the review or the applicant submits it for DNR evaluation. In either case, please ensure that Forms MI1 and MI2 are completed and submitted with the proposal (Burch & Tort, 2021). Furthermore, building permit applicants regularly request (or are asked to request) that one or more sources at a venue enforce operating hour limitations. This document describes how to categorize pollution sources with limited operating hours in an air dispersion modeling assessment for both annual and daily operating constraints. There are numerous alternatives open, and the option chosen will depend on the facility’s requirements and how much adaptability the facility wishes to maintain in its building permits. It is important to note that any operational constraints used in the modeling assessments will be represented in the correlating building permits.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established the National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to safeguard public health and wellbeing air (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021). NAAQS defines the maximum permissible levels of specific air pollutants and, therefore, the number of air resources that all industrial amenities and other sources of these pollutants must share (Burch & Tort, 2021).When the Iowa Department of Natural Resources receives an air quality building permit application, computer modeling of the air distribution can determine the concentration of air pollutants in the ambient air near the facility (Iowa Department of Natural Resources, 2021). This includes the facility’s potential impact and nearby facilities’ impact. DNR compares these effects with NAAQS to ensure public health is protected and summarizes this information in the form of the Air Resource Availability Summary (AAR). If possible, an AAR summary will be provided to the applicant upon approval. The applicant can then use the AAR summary for design purposes to help prepare for future permit applications.

Discussion of Evidence

Wildfire smoke can partially raise ambient rates of air pollutants and other Clean Air Act-regulated pollutants. Tennessee and Iowa achieved their current level of information on air quality and smoke management by enacting various regulatory laws and establishing implementing agencies. These data are obtained when rises in ambient levels are evaluated by air monitoring stations that comprise a nationwide network, which informs NAAQS conformity decisions. The EPA has authorized the state government to treat pollution from natural occurrences differently than emissions from anthropogenic emissions. The CAA allows the EPA to exclude air quality information from decision-making if such information was demonstrably impacted by exceptional events like natural disasters (Liu et al., 2018). The EPA outlined the circumstances under which states and tribes can illustrate that the air quality effects of wildfires (or prescribed burning) should be exempted from NAAQS compliance assessments. The application of CAA visibility necessities may also be hampered by wildfire smoke. To safeguard visibility in national parks and nature reserves, the CAA created a nationwide visibility objective and approved a regional haze plan. Wildfire smoke may be subject to state-level regulatory requirements as well. Many states have created initiatives to control and regulate smoke generated by prescribed burns. Smoke management programs aim to reduce the amount of smoke that enters large cities, prevent public health and safety risks, and maintain CAA adherence.

Wildfire control strategies established by Tennessee rely on air quality monitoring, smoke prediction, and suitable communication of health risks associated with air quality conditions to the public. Numerous federal, tribal, state and local agencies contribute to these responsibilities. The EPA and other agencies have developed tools to measure air quality and warn the general public. For example, EPA maintains AirNow, a website for multiple agencies that report air quality based on surveillance data received from state, local, and federal agencies regularly. AirNow compiles the data in a consistent format and displays the data via an interactive map where the state collects air quality data. AirNow reports air quality information using the Air Quality Index (AQI), a nationally standardized index. EPA calculates the AQI of a particular pollutant based on the ambient concentration of that pollutant. The range of AQI values ​​is 0 to 450 (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). The higher the AQI, the higher the air pollution. The EPA has designated an AQI score of 100 or less as satisfactory. The Inter-Ministry Wildland Fire and Air Quality Response Program (IWFAQRP) helps monitor and communicate air quality. The United States funds this inter-ministerial program. The Forest Service (USFS) was created to directly assess, contact and engage civilians and firefighters at risk of fire smoke in forest areas. The program maintains a national inventory of smoke monitoring equipment and deploys technical specialists, Air Resource Advisors (ARA), in the event of a major smoke accident. ARA can provide, install, operate monitors, create smoke forecasts, and share information with forest fire response teams, air quality agencies, and the general public. In the event of a forest fire, the need for real-time air quality information is very important. However, the frequency of reporting air quality depends on the equipment used. Also, do not install a permanent monitor near a place affected by smoke (Zhang & Srinivasan, 2020). Temporary monitors can be deployed, but experts can also use computer models to estimate pollution levels. These states are considering wildfire legislation, so one can consider which surveillance strategies will effectively affect smoke control and public health response. Surveillance strategies can include fixed monitors, mobile sensors, or a combination of models. Congress may also consider the cost of surveillance, which may vary from location to location, and public health benefits.

Since Congress approves the writing of regulations that illustrate the technical, functional, and legal details required to implement laws, the EPA is known as a regulatory authority. Regulations are legally binding prerequisites imposed on people, companies, state or local governments, non-profit organizations, or others. Tennessee and Iowa state air quality and smoke management laws are based on these guidelines. During the approval process in Tennessee, the license writer and administrator decide whether or not the source should be modeled to see if pollution from the new source will affect a NAAQS or AAL (Hawthorne et al., 2021). Relatively large sources proposed in an attainment surface are covered by the USEPA’s Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, or large sources suggested in a non-attainment area covered by the USEPA’s Non-attainment New Source Review process must frequently submit a dispersion modeling assessment with their license application (Hawthorne et al., 2021). In such instances, a licensing meeting is usually planned to discuss any modeling the holder must do. If a source is regarded as a “real minor” or “provisional major,” the Division may choose to have the Department’s modeling personnel offer modeling to assess whether the recommended modified or new source may endanger air quality in the nearby region. If the state government provides modeling assistance, the modeling personnel frequently contacts the holder to collect additional data needed to model the source. Suppose the state’s modeling assessment of the source implies that it may endanger an NAAQS or AAL. In that case, the Department’s modeling team will contact the owner to obtain any additional data required to optimize the modeling assessment (Hawthorne et al., 2021). If a modeling assessment that the state provides (or an advisor) for a recommended source indicates that the source will probably endanger an NAAQS or AAL, the business can also provide extra, more refined modeling assessment (Hawthorne et al., 2021). If extra, refined modeling demonstrates that the source no longer presents a possible risk to the related NAAQS or AAL, and an evaluation by the Department’s modeling personnel proves that the modeling complies to defined state modeling guidelines, a building permit for the proposed source may be issued, and these processes are relied upon to get air quality and smoke management information assessment (Hawthorne et al., 2021).

The Air Quality Agency, on the other hand, works with Iowa residents, lobby groups, businesses, and communities to establish regulations and guidelines to safeguard human health and global ecosystems, as well as to encourage adherence to environmental protection requirements. The development of regulations is an important part of this process (Liu et al., 2018). The state regulatory staff develops air quality guidelines coherent with the statutory body and preserves Iowans’ right to breathe clean air (Burch & Tort, 2021). They also create operational plans to ensure compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards air (Burch & Tort, 2021). The stack testing group should ensure the quality of pollution data and to utilize the information to establish adherence to emission standards. Field test audits and evaluation of test reports ensure information quality. Field audits include ensuring that the tester follows the appropriate method, authorizing on-site variants, ensuring that the examined emission source is functioning appropriately, and responding to questions presented by the testing group and the facility. The report evaluation checks the computation and lab analysis to see that the test findings are correct. A test overview will be produced, and the emission point’s compliance status will be ascertained. Iowa’s environmental policy seeks to safeguard natural resources while also promoting economic growth, property ownership, global health, and power generation. This is primarily accomplished through regulations and statutes enacted at all levels of government and influenced by various interested parties with competing agendas.

Conclusion

Prescribed burning is a valuable land management tool with numerous advantages. The report explores the air quality and smoke management resources available to land management agencies in Tennessee State. The study has highlighted how Tennessee and Iowa State have achieved the present level of information on air quality and smoke management. Comparison has been made on how the two states have developed their air quality control laws, policies, and programs. Several sources are available to the states for air quality and smoke management to their land management agencies, like the air sensor monitors that are less expensive, compact, and typically convenient to use than governmental monitors that are widely used to analyze air quality conditions. Also, distributed modeling examination to simulate the impact of proposed sources on the state’s air quality.

These resources have proven to be effective in the control and management of air quality and smoke management. The state natural resources department personnel must have a basic knowledge of climate change science, as well as the contribution that wildfire, smoke emissions, and ecological system management decisions play. Because of climate change, ecological systems and fire regimes are expected to shift and decision makers must be prepared to play an effective role in this transformation. If future fire regime estimations are even relatively accurate, climate change will lead in more severe and widespread smoke impacts. The general public will be concerned about how prescribed smoke and wildfire use contribute to climate change, as well as how prescribed smoke affects the growth and preservation of healthy woodlands and their ability to store carbon.

References

Altshuler, S. (2020). Wildfire and prescribed burning impacts on air quality in the United States. Journal Of The Air &Amp; Waste Management Association70(6), 581-582. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1747802

Blades, J., Shook, S., & Hall, T. (2020). Smoke management of wildland and prescribed fire: understanding public preferences and trade-offs. American Journal Of Forest Research44(11), 1344-1355. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2014-0110

Burch, J., & Tort, S. (2021). Can air quality alerts mitigate the effects of air pollution?. Cochrane Clinical Answers. https://doi.org/10.1002/cca.3855

Gaulding, C. (2021). Definition of Air Quality Control Regions:approach and experience to date. Journal Of The Air Pollution Control Association18(9), 591-595. https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1968.10469172

Hawthorne, A., Gammage, R., & Dudney, C. (2021). An indoor air quality study of 40 east Tennessee homes. Environment International12(1-4), 221-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-4120(86)90034-6

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. (2021). License Vendors | Iowa DNR. Iowadnr.gov. Retrieved 27 July 2022, from https://www.iowadnr.gov/About-DNR/DNR-License-Vendors.

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. (2021). Air Pollutants. Iowadnr.gov. Retrieved 28 July 2022, from https://www.iowadnr.gov/Environmental-Protection/Air-Quality/Air-Pollutants.

Liu, Y., Goodrick, S., Achtemeier, G., Forbus, K., & Combs, D. (2018). Smoke plume height measurement of prescribed burns in the south-eastern United States. International Journal Of Wildland Fire22(2), 130. https://doi.org/10.1071/wf11072

Smith, W., Schueneman, J., & Zeidberg, L. (2019). Public Reaction to Air Pollution in Nashville, Tennessee. Journal Of The Air Pollution Control Association14(10), 418-423. https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1964.10468307

Stern, A., & Professor, E. (2019). History of Air Pollution Legislation in the United States. Journal Of The Air Pollution Control Association32(1), 44-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1982.10465369

Tebbens, B. (2020). Air Monitoring Reflects Air Pollution Control Activity. Journal Of The Air Pollution Control Association16(5), 261-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1966.10468471

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. (2022). Air Pollution Control Regulations. Tn.gov. Retrieved 28 July 2022, from https://www.tn.gov/environment/program-areas/apc-air-pollution-control-home/apc/air-pollution-control-regulations.html.

Turner, D. (2018). RelationshipsBetween 24-Hour MeanAir Quality MeasurementsandMeteorological Factorsin Nashville, Tennessee. Journal Of The Air Pollution Control Association11(10), 483-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1961.10468029

Zhang, H., & Srinivasan, R. (2020). A Systematic Review of Air Quality Sensors, Guidelines, and Measurement Studies for Indoor Air Quality Management. Sustainability12(21), 9045. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219045

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Introduction The portrayal of cultural characteristics that are important to the populations that are native to that location is a common feature of the indigenous [...]

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Introduction Different cultures have different ways of fostering creativity and imagination. However, since people might be impacted by values and norms from different cultures, artists [...]

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