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Arterial Blood Gas Determinations, Essay Example

Pages: 2

Words: 669

Essay

Account for the differences between the initial and final arterial blood gas determinations presented, based on the understanding of pulmonary physiology

In pulmonary physiology, the main purpose of the lungs is to ensure a continuous supply and flow of blood in and out of the respiratory system. In the case provided above, there is a steady and established difference between the initial and final arterial gas determinations. Blood gas determinations are often aimed at ensuring normality and non-malfunctioning conditions in the respiratory system. The tests, as conducted on the patient in the case, were aimed at getting the acidity (pH) in blood together with the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood artery. The capability of the earth to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide leads to the varied levels of acid in the blood (Madama, 1998).

Therefore, the differences in the arterial blood gas determinations vary with the variance of the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide, which circulate the blood system. Some of the main factors, which affect arterial blood gas determinations, are altitude and presents of pathogens in the body of the individual. The determination carried out upon the individual in the case provided was aimed at explaining or bringing out cases of cardiac failure, kidney failure, and hemorrhage, overdose of drugs, uncontrolled diabetes, and shock, among others. The normal conditions of an individual should replicate a pH level of pH 7.35 to 7.45; PCO2 35 to 45 mm Hg; HCO3- 21 to 28 mEq/L; PO2 80 to 100 mm Hg; O2 saturation 95% to 100%. However, these normal conditions were not replicated by the determination carried out. Several explanations are put across as far as this condition and case is concerned (Kumar & Robbins, 2007).

Johnny Cash has been having this condition for a long period now. One of the explanations can be drawn from the change in altitude when Cash took a transatlantic plane flight. Change in altitude results in varying intake of oxygen into the blood system through the heart. Intake of oxygen means that there will be an outpour of carbon dioxide. When Cash took the flight, the altitude change resulted in an alteration of the amount of oxygen inhaled by Cash since the higher the altitude, the lesser the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere. Besides this, the physiological processes adapts to this change in altitude condition (McPhee & Hammer, 2010). This is why when Cash changed the environment again, there was a marked difference in the arterial gas determinations.

At one time, Cash participated in high oxygen intake activities as playing tennis. Since the lungs had gotten used to low altitude intake of oxygen, he was able to complain of sore feeling in the thigh. This was due to formation of acidic substances (crumbs) resulting from excess accumulation of carbon dioxide. After six months, Cash was still complaining of the problems he had been treated of (Criner, 2009). Even after two years, he was still suffering because of the condition he exposed the lungs to when taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide. The excess accommodation of carbon dioxide in the alveolar system of Cash made his condition to worsen even at his old age. The malfunctioning of the hemorrhages thereby resulted in baseline arterial blood gas of pH 7.39, PCO2 49, and PO2 60. The main idea, which resulted in the significant difference, is actually the change in altitude and unregulated intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (Irwin & Rippe, 2008).

References

Criner, G. J. (2009). Critical care study guide: Text and review. New York: Springer.

Irwin, R. S., & Rippe, J. M. (2008). Irwin and Rippe’s intensive care medicine. Philadelphia:      Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kumar, V., & Robbins, S. L. (2007). Robbins basic pathology. Philadelphia, PA:             Saunders/Elsevier.

Madama, V. C. (1998). Pulmonary function testing and cardiopulmonary stress testing. Albany,            N.Y: Delmar Publishers.

McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical            medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

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