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Breast and Prostate Cancers, Coursework Example

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Introduction

Breast and prostate cancers are some of the frequently malignances diagnosed all over the world,  some of the definite risk factors for the two malignances include ethnicity, age  as well as family history hereditary breast censer and prostate cancers are associated with the alterations in the expression of the tumor suppressor oncogenes and genes’’ (Lindfors & Rosenquist, 1995)

The decision about whether or not to screen for a condition can be quite controversial. However, even in the case of noncontroversial screening programs, such as blood pressure screening, there will always be factors that argue for and against the implementation of the screening program.

Majority of the hereditary breast and prostate cancers are usually attributed to mutation in the germ line in the breast (BR) CAncer susceptible genes (BRCA1 and the BRCA2, the remaining cases are usually attributed to the over expression of the oncogenes in addition to other genetic aberration.

The increased interest in the breast cancer cases and technology in addition to the pressure from the wider genetic testing services has made it important for breast screening program. However, Noorani & McGahan  (1999) have  argued that the vested interest from the private sector on this program due to the gains has made this programs almost very inevitable. The ethical, policy and [psycho-social implications that are associated with the screening are also some of the arguments in favour of the program

The families with considerable family history also stand a higher chance of benefiting from the genetic screening program,

Arguments in favour of breast and prostrate cancer genetic screening

Clinical relevance

The time required to perform any lab analysis can be greatly reduced if the genes of the gene among more than one candidate can be tentatively identified,’’ (Lindfors & Rosenquist, 1995)

Ethical, psycho-social implications

Once the family history of one candidate has been identified it is easy to make conclusion without having to test large genes like BRCA1 as well as BRCA2, this may be very cost effective considering the economic and human resources involved

References

Noorani H & McGahan.  (1999). Predictive genetic testing for breast and prostate cancer. Ottawa; the Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment (CCOHTA).

Lindfors KK, Rosenquist C. (1995) The cost-effectiveness of mammographic screening strategies, Jama, 881-884.

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