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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

The text, ‘Childhood and Adolescent: Voyages in Development written by Spencer A Rathus ( 2011)  isa very useful guide into contemporary psychological interpretations of how physiological changes through childhood into adolescence are much more than mere growth in length and circumference, but an entire transformation of the personality.

An exposition of seven specific points would be undertaken in this essay as it pertains to their significant importance in the science; relevance to being incorporated into a career path and personal life encounters. The points selected are gross motto skills development; egocentricity; language and cognition; peer relationships; sex differences in play; the self and social cognition.

According to Rathus(2011)and many other theorists there is an intensive progression of motto skills development between birth and 12 months of age and again 2-6 years when kinetic senses are fortified. It is when muscles are strengthened to turn over from one side to the next, attitudes of facial expression and reactions through active body language are expressed; crawling; brisk walking,runningand  skillful use of limbs are employed(Rathus, 2010)

Motto skills development knowledge is important to the science because it helps in determining whether there is an abnormality in this area. While some children are slow developers marked retardation in motto skills can be measured based on the establishment of an average for the particular age range. Likewise, interpretation of a child’s development in relation to motto skills activity can be incorporated into a career path as an area of specialization in child psychology. Motto skills and cognition are interrelated. Hence, its relevance for collaborative understanding in personal life experiences with children that age.

Further, egocentricity can become overextended producing conflict in relationship with siblings and peers.An understanding of this type of behavior in children is relevant to psychology since some adults may become offended by thisbehavior, which could lead to several incidences of abuse. As psychologists, it is important to be empathetic with children as they encounter this phase of life if efficiency in practice is the goal.

Child psychologists can benefit the most from this theory of developmentwhen instructing parents or caregivers who tend to punish children for this wrong doing when it is merely a stage in the developmentof mind.It has been said by someone that, knowledge is power. As such, this information is applicable to real world situations

Language and cognition development play a major role in learning healthy interaction techniques. Without body and verbal communication, interaction would be limited to signs and symbols. Importantly, psychology of language denotes that due to cognition the child can interpret and speaka language he/she hears from birth withoutattending language classes (Rathus, 2011).

It is a perfect demonstration of how the subconscious mind works to record information and replays as experiences. Language and cognition development are such experiences, which make sense to the study of psychology and can be incorporated into a career being applied as interpretations for personal life issues encountered daily.

Understanding peer relationships is of great of psychological significance. Rathus (2011) explains that as children grow older they tend to tolerate separation more and lean towards developing relationships with children either of their own age group or the same gender (Rathus, 2011).

The real importance of this phenomenon to psychology is that parents learn to understand this weaning period or tendency of their offspring towards peer, rather than family; and realize that it is a healthy transformation. It is a similar behavior to when the infant becomes a crawler and no longer wants to be cuddled, but leaves the arms of adults to explore his/her environment.

These are very important life lessons for parents and practitioners of the science alike. The collaboration into a career necessitates that psychologists and sociologists provide a healthy environment for safe associations. Criminologists have discovered that the formation of gangs could emanate from peer attachments which were unsupervised during childhood, but blossomed into gangs from high schools, colleges and the wider society (Diaz, 2009)

Precisely, the collaborative influence lies in society linking disciplines to counteract the ill effects of peer group transformation into unacceptable forces within a social structure. Peer/gang psychology could be intimidating to society. While, children grow up into adolescence with strong peer group bounds, the home can always serve as a stabilizing force in the midst of any personal or collective turmoil.

Sex differences in play begin to be recognized as early as during the toddler years andfollow through into preschool; way into adolescence. Importantly, while social scientists denote this as part of child psychology, sociologists argue that sex difference in play is learnt behavior (Rathus, 2011). Consequently, socialization is responsible for the imposed differences in play.

Whether it is psychological or sociological no distinct differences in its emergence can be differentiated. As such, when considered in light of career collaboration this development could be interpreted more effectively when merged into social psychology. It is vital to the science, since some children display tendencies which have no gender play recognition. Subsequently, they may be labeled by their peers, parents or society. However, research has shown where girls are less likely to confirm to stereotyping regarding selecting gender related toys and play (Newman, 2008)). Definitely, this is a collaborative benefit for the entire society regarding psychological stereotyping.

No one can deny that awareness of the ‘self ‘is vital to life itself. Religious organizations are adapting psychological interpretations regarding self concept and self esteem, to influence the world about how healthy perceptions can change situations, which recur in one’s life from time to time (Rathus, 2011). Therefore, creating healthy self perceptions during childhood is essential for acceptablebehavior within the society and is significant to the science.

For collaboration into the career path, a psychology practitioner would have to develop an exemplary self concept to function efficiently within the discipline. Hence, this point is not only valuable to understanding child development, but importantly for application in the entire social science arena.

Personally, it is a goal worth attaining. Rathus (2011), drawing from theories espoused by Patterson and Bigler (2006), Booth-LaForce (2006) and Salmivalli (2006) in the exposition to collaborate theoretical perspectives into one’s personalcareer paths,indicated that from preschool years self concept develops whereby the child is capable of affirming competence and self worth based on kinetics and academic attainment (Rathus, 2011).  Consequently, this is taken into adolescence and disseminates towards a broader scope of human relationships.

Social cognition then, becomes a major achievement of childhood. It can be considered as important as any other category or level of development swiftly transcending childhood into adolescence. Rathus (2011) perceives this concept as being related to the child’s interpretation of rewards and punishment. Precisely, this is accomplished through observations. Ultimately, judgments regarding appropriateness of interactions are formulated and social cognition is realized in the child (Rathus, 2011)

This theory collaborates with the proposition that a child learns wherever he/she sees or lives with. Such information is most relevant to the science in pursuance of a career path to sensitize psychologists towards implications of what society terms as deviance. Social cognition through methods of socialization sometimes could develop in opposition to values set forth in society.

Psychologists then would have to develop the expertise through interaction with children and adolescents of re-socialization to maintain social order. Precisely, social cognition as a concept, adaptation or psycho-social development is integral to a harmonious universe.

From a wider  paradigm the seven fore mentioned points, gross motto skills development; egocentricity; language and cognition; peer relationships; sex differences in play; the self and social cognition have their significant importance in the science; relevance to being incorporated into a career path and personal life encounters.

Interpretations of a child’s development in relation to motto skills activity can be incorporated into a career path as an area of specialization in child psychology. Likewise,egocentricity when misunderstood can become overextended producing conflict in relationship with siblings and peers. Alternatively,language and cognition development play a major role in learning healthy interaction techniques.

Understanding peer relationships has major psychological significance. As such,linking disciplines to counteract the ill effects of peer group transformation into unacceptable forces is advocated.Imporatntly, sex difference in play is learnt behavior and similar to peer group interactions, socialization could be a leading factor for the imposed gender preferences associated with play. These could emerge from the ‘self ‘which is vital to life itself. Ultimately, through observation, social cognition develops forging the child/ adolescence to personally respond to rewards and punishment practiced in society.

Works Cited

Diaz, T. No Boundaries: Transnational Latino Gangs and American Law Enforcement:Ann Arbor. Michigan. University of Michigan Press. 2009. Print

Newman Barbara, Newman Phillip.Development through life: A Psychosocial Approach. New York: Wadswoth Publishing co. 2008. Print

Rathus, Spencer. Childhood and Adolescent: Voyages of Development. 4th edition.  New Jersey: The college of New Jersey. 2011. Print.

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