Clark Leonard Hill (1884-1952), Essay Example

Two significant points that are important to note about Hull’s work are:

  • His “theory of learning is centered on the necessity of reinforcement, defined in terms of drive reduction.’ The behaving organism is viewed in the context of homeostatic model seeking equilibrium from ‘drive forces’” (New World Encyclopedia)
  • Began the modern study of hypnosis (ibid.).

The first point was selected because it states that drive reduction, which was introduced by Hull in the 1940s and furthered by Skinner, is a form of reinforcement, as is reaching one’s goal.  Simply put, if one is hungry, one has a drive to get some food to eat.  Consequently, the hungry person is motivated to get some food and eat it after which (s)he will feel better as his/her body’s equilibrium will have been restored and, as a result, this also acts as a reinforcement.  Although the theory of drive reduction was developed by Hull, it was further developed by his collaborator Kenneth Spence.  Both these of these psychologists agreed that “the reduction of drives is the primary force behind motivation” (Cherry, K.).

The beginning of the modern study of hypnosis was selected to be able to look at which theories of hypnosis are in vogue today.  There are three major ones; namely, the Social Cognitive theory, the Neo Disassociation Theory, and the Interactive Phenomenological Theories (Hypnosis). As for the Functionalist Theory it has two emphases; namely, on a scientific method and the functionalists’ speculations of the needs that must be met for a society to exist and the ways in which social institutions satisfy those needs (Functionalism).


Cherry, K.  Drive Reduction Theory.  Retrieved on February 13, 2012, from

Functionalism.  Retrieved on February 13, 2012, from

Hypnosis.  The Major Theories of Hypnosis.  Retrieved on February 13, 2012, from of hypnosis.html.

New World Encyclopedia.  Hull, Clark L.  Retrieved on February 13, 2012, from