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Crime Pattern Analysis, Research Paper Example

Pages: 3

Words: 782

Research Paper

Abstract

Crime Pattern Analysis is discussed within the context of Criminal Justice.  A brief definition exploring the concept of Crime Pattern Analysis and the theoretical considerations of same. In addition, Exploration of how CPA is utilised and the forms of analysis that might be undertaken.

Introduction

This essay will briefly discuss the link that makes up crime pattern analysis with the criminology theories i.e. rational choice, routine activities theory and crime mapping. It will define how to use crime pattern analysis and how this has been used by organizations in order to assist in the prevention of criminal activity. The essay shows what the different forms of crime pattern analysis are. Crime pattern analysis encompasses a number of techniques and may best be regarded as a generic term that covers a number of approaches and techniques.

This broad definition of procedures can be used by security managers to analyze the incidence and distribution of crime. All of these perceptions are linked to criminological theories such as routine activities theory and the rational choice theory. In the context of routine activities theory we seek to explain that a crime occurs when an opportunity and the potential offender meet at a suitable time and place lacking capable guardianship. Rational choice theory is also linked to crime pattern analysis. “Crime patterns theory links places with desirable targets in the context within which they are found, by focusing on how place come to the attention of potential offenders” (Weisberg Eck, 1995).  With the identification of potential targets security managers are able to plan appropriate strategies.

Use of Crime Pattern Analysis

Crime pattern analysis is being used as a very valuable tool for the planning and implementation of strategies in minimizing crime. In 2003 the Australian Institute of criminology released two reports examining the cost crime to the Australian community. The original report estimated the cost crime to be nearly $32 billion in 2001. The current report provides an update of the previous report of approximately 3 5.8 billion in 2005 (Rollings, 2005).  This is an increase of crime by 11% in four years. Crime pattern analysis is being conducted on the recorded date was being used in a proportional right to the criminal activities being conducted. Crime pattern analysis refers to the sets of systematic and analytical processes that provide timely potent information about crime patterns and crime trend correlation. It is primarily a tactical tool which analyzes and compares data on file – as such gives the security manager important information on activities in their area of responsibility. This includes developing crime patterns on stolen property descriptions. Within the context of crime pattern analysis there are essentially four main forms of analysis that might be undertaken, for example:

  • Analysis of management information;
  • Crime trend analysis;
  • Crime cluster analysis;
  • Comparative case analysis.

Analysis for management information:  is primarily used to provide a general passion of crime in a specific location. Crime trend analysis compares crime data during a specific period of time. The crime cluster approach seeks to identify common characteristics for offenses. This information is further enhanced on the data collected in comparative case analysis which compares date, vendors and crime types. Security managers need to be aware of the accuracy of the statistical data provided as it might be directed to a particular area. They must also interpret the data and the relevance of the information. It is the actual quality of the information that is used which may determine the accuracy and efficiency of the tangible threat assessment. Given the additional considerations with  security managers “that although the criminal statistics and figures are extremely important in establishing the broad common tools of criminal victimization, they do just to provide a sound base for understanding either offending or victimization in the retail context” (Willis Beck, 1995)

Crime pattern analysis stages: are conducted in three stages; identifying the aim of the survey on the collection of data, but categorize the data collected and finally the interpretation of the data to draw reason for conclusions. The stages will never be the same for any two surveys of this will impact on the accuracy of any information gathered. The actual process for preventing criminal activity through crime pattern analysis can be based on the continuous cycles through six stages. The security managers can decide whether to use three stages or six stages to plan antitheft strategies in the workplace, as such having the ability to implement active countermeasures designed to prevent theft.

References

Rollings, K. (2005). Counting the cost of crime in Australia: 2005 update. Sydney: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Weisberg Eck, J. (1995). Crime & Crime place prevention studies. New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Willis Beck, A. (1995). Crime & Security Management – The risk to safe shopping. Leicester UK: Perpetuity Press.

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