Before selecting a topology, there are some factors that must be considered. These factors include installation, infrastructure, troubleshooting, distances, maintenance, legacy network and future considerations. The proposed scenario acquires bus topology that is considered to be the cheapest topology around. However, in order to replace the bus topology with the star topology, there are certain factors that need to be addressed. Star topology supports network redundancy by connected each node from the workstation to the switch that is also considered, as a hub. Moreover, star topology also provides centralized administration and configuration of data objects on the network. However, this feature requires a configuration of a domain within the network along with cable length that is relatively higher. The domain is then managed by a domain controller empowered with Microsoft active directory. However, a resource is also required to manage the domain controller known as network administrator or system engineer. Likewise, Microsoft Active directory provides auditing, security and configuration features that can be customized according to the business requirements and job functions on the network. In terms of hardware, network switches must support 10/100 Mbps full duplex mode for an effective star topology functionality. For instance, if the current network is functional on a bus topology with a 10M bits/sec Mbps supported network devices, there is a requirement of replacing them with an updated network devices supporting 10/100 Mbps full/ half duplex mode.
Java message service is an application programming interface that is also known as Java message oriented middleware (MOM) that is deployed to exchange messages between two or more clients. Moreover, this service is developed by the Java Community Process called as JSR 914 (“Java Message Service.” 267-267). MOM injects the construction of distributed systems by transferring messages via applications within the network. Moreover, MOM also makes a checksum on messages for successful delivery. Furthermore, MOM also provides certain features such as load balancing, scalability options, fault checking and support for transactions. The role of API is to construct a message and colonize it with data related to applications along with transmission of message by assigning routing information for final delivery of a message.
BPEL that is called as the business process execution language has deployed a standard for enterprise applications that utilizes software components as web services. The processes of this language are processed and executed by a centralized engine known as ‘orchestration’. Likewise, this engine addresses and facilitates factors such as scalability and categorization of administrative domains (LI, MUTHUSAMY, and JACOBSEN 2-2:33). As BPEL is a globally recognized syntax for the engine known as ‘orchestration’, exchanging messages in a huge global network, where there are hundreds of applications with complex processes are running, is easier without the requirement of specific expertise in any programming language. Likewise, employees with BPEL skills can model the processes visually and will produce the XML document by BPEL syntax.
Web services coordination is basically a service architecture that provides a pair of modular protocol building blocks that can be used to construct protocols relevant to specific applications. Likewise, the protocols that are included in the WS coordination are frameworks to develop activities to reach to the conclusion for joint operations. Moreover, these provisions and specific requirements lay a foundation for constructing a robust distributed application that is required to perform joint operations. For example, we assume a sign-on service that is centralized and activates a client application for authentication for a single time. Next, the provided user / password will be granted access to required web services. Conversely, for signing off from the application, only single operation will fulfill this task, irrespective to logged on to different web services. Moreover, security issues must be considered for authentication procedures such as XML encryption and XML digital signatures that may provide high assurance of security. In summary, WS coordination is comprehensive enough to revolutionize as a standard on the Internet for activity synchronization. Moreover, WS coordination provides services related to activity and registration that is amplified to plugins and protocols that facilitate domain specific requirements.
Major Traffic Sources and Stores
As mentioned earlier, the active directory will support centralized administration and auditing features for access management within the organization. For instance, active directory provide functionality of creating users on a domain i.e. [email protected] This user is now available for granting or denying access to certain objects on the network. If we take an example of a Human resource department of an organization, a user named as [email protected] is created. Peter will enter user credentials for authentication and authorization purpose before getting access to the data objects. Likewise, the network administrator will allow access to only data objects associated with human resource to the end user Peter. When peter enters credentials i.e. username and password, active directory automatically grant or deny access according to the policy applied to the user [email protected] Therefore, updating a policy on a specific group will update the changes to all the objects or users available in the group. To make all this a success from a centralized domain controller configured on a star topology, Lightweight Directory access protocol that is known as Internet standard directory service protocol for access and update capabilities. Moreover, LDAP is utilized for accessing directory listings and is also implemented in email and web browsers for querying LDAP supported directory. However, for the current scenario, switches supporting LDAP features must be addressed before replacing the legacy network hardware. Thus, a domain controller configured on a Windows Server, switches supporting 100 base-T and LDAP features and a twisted pair cable also supporting 100 base T is required for replacing the current bus topology with star topology.
The computing world comprises of many platforms, devices and components that are interconnected with each other to exchange and transfer information when required. Likewise, computers are made to communicate with each other in the form of computer networks made of complex configurations, technologies and architecture. In order to apprehend the concept of sharing and exchanging data, Domain Name System lays the foundation of translating and converting computer names in to IP addresses. For instance, if a computer is named as ‘Peter’, on the internal network it will be recognized by its names not by its IP address. When DNS receives data from the computer named as ‘Peter’, it translates the computer name in to its IP address so that it can be recognized by routers and switches. Likewise, switches and routers recognize number based IP addresses for example, 192.168.0.1. Moreover, while accessing Internet, or opening any website; humans need to know only the Uniform Resource Location (URL) i.e. the website address ‘www.hotmail.com’. This is a convenient way for humans of accessing the website with the URL instead of its IP address. DNS is a mechanism that converts these web based addresses in to IP address. Consequently, the expediency for humans of accessing IP address based systems via easy names is handled by the DNS server. DNS server is configured separately for this specific function in organizations.
A typical DNS server requires configuration of critical components in order to work correctly. One of these components is the Resource Records (RRs) as these records are configured to handle several tasks including the translation of URL’s in to IP addresses, identification of host and host names i.e. the web server on which the website is hosted and processes associated with mail exchange functions. DNS logical architecture resembles a tree structure that works from top to bottom along with branches that are called leaves i.e. every single branch represents a leave. Likewise, the main branch also called as node from where the tree originates extends from top to bottom represents the root. Nodes can be represented as .org, .com, .ws etc. identifies label of the website. If the length of the website is long there will are more branches and nodes associated with it. Likewise, while considering a URL from a DNS structure representing tree, labels are selected from the direction i.e. from left to the right. In the current information age, many DNS servers are in operation in the UK that are controlled and managed by many companies that are located throughout the world. However, only technical issues are handled by these organizations. Moreover, if any technical modifications and configurations are required in the DNS server for example, changes in the operational procedures required for minimizing security threats, these organizations are accountable for these changes and not the governmental and legislative bodies.
As mentioned before, DNS servers are operating throughout the world for connecting computer networks, data and information exchange there is less likelihood that these DNS servers requires shutdown or blocked by the effected country officials. However, in some cases, for countering a global threat, changes or temporary blocking may be required to restrict certain websites in effected regions, for instance in UK, for a limited time period.
Purpose of the DNS was to balance the load between numbers of servers (Devitt, 2008). Nevertheless, the framework via which the load is divided between numbers of servers does not provide assurance for accurate load balancing. Consequently, the prime limitation of DNS is the inadequate load balancing between the servers.
“Java Message Service.” Network Dictionary (2007): 267-. Print.
LI, GUOLI, VINOD MUTHUSAMY, and HANS-ARNO JACOBSEN. “A Distributed Service-Oriented Architecture for Business Process Execution.” ACM Transactions on the Web 4.1 (2010): 2,2:33. Print.