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Debating American Government, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

Interest groups tend to have a significant impact on the judicial system within the country as it lobbies the legislative branch. They spend a lot of money trying to lobby Congress members on different issues. By doing so, they affect the entire legislation made by congress. Also, they move the extra mile to testify at the congress just for their issues to be heard.

Additionally, interest groups tend to lobby the executive branch. Some of the lobbyists access the president directly, although most of them access individuals at lower ranks within the executive.[1] Most of the time, interest groups target regulatory agencies that play a critical role in setting policies that affect trade and commerce throughout the country. As a result, they may end up capturing regulatory agencies and then hand agency control upon the industries it needed to control.

Finally, interest groups lobby the judicial branch. They tend to influence courts in various ways. They may file amicus curiae briefs, hence get an opportunity to present an argument favoring a certain issue. Also, they may file lawsuits against parties or the government demanding certain actions.[2]

Bureaucracy refers to an arrangement or a system that maintains uniform authority across and within institutions. Some people refer to it as the rule of office.

One of the characteristics of bureaucracy is task specialization. Employees are assigned tasks depending on how they understand them, and each one of them is educated on what to do. Hierarchical authority is the second one that involves individuals in higher ranks supervising those in lower ranks.[3] The other characteristic is impersonal involvement, which involves a formal relationship among employees. Free and rational decisions are made, which are free from emotions. Career orientation is another characteristic that involves choosing employees depending on their expertise, experience, and capabilities. Rules and requirement is another characteristic where everyone has to abide by these rules.

Bureaucracy is advantageous since it leads to the division of labor; hence specialization increases. Besides, bureaucracy leads to efficiency since most of the workers are competent. Accountability and answerability is another advantage as everyone remains responsible for the task they perform. There are rules and regulations which all members have to follow to the latter.[4] It is also easier to administer the organization since everything is arranged rationally according to a given hierarchy.

Bureaucracy is disadvantageous since there exists red tape due to inefficiency and lack of flexibility. Delays arise from the bureaucratic system because it has a complicated set of rules. Corruption may be another challenge in the bureaucratic system, more so at the higher ranks affecting the entire economy. It is not easy to change goals in a bureaucratic system of governance since it is highly cumbersome. A simple task may require a lot of paperwork, causing delays. Nepotism may affect the system more so if managers decide to favor their relatives. A slow decision making exists within this system since it involves more consultations from different departments.

The three executive powers are judicial, executive, and legislature. The judicial branch decides the law’s meaning, including compliance to real situations and assessing if the law breaks the constitutional rules. The judicial branch includes the highest court called the supreme court. The other one is the court of appeal. On the other hand, the executive branch ensures strict adherence to the laws, and it is headed by the president, who is helped by the vice president and members of the cabinet. Legislature refers to an assembly that makes laws. The legislature is part of the government. Members of the legislature tend to represent a political party. The U.S.A. legislature involves the senate. The other group is the house of the representatives.

The first goal of American foreign policy is protecting the Americans. The second goal is advancing global interests, human rights, and democracy—the third goal is to promote international understanding of the Americans’ policies and values [5]

President Trump’s administration has tried to ensure strict adherence to the three goals of America’s foreign policies. During the inauguration, President Trump announced the reduction of the U.S.A. trade deficits.[6] He promised to unite all civilized nations against terrorism and emphasized that it was right for nations to consider their interests first. The example is connected to the first foreign policy goal that aims at ensuring protecting all Americans. The policy also connects to the second goal through interest advancement and the third goal by understanding the U.S.A. values like uniting civilized nations against Islamic terrorism.

On January 27, 2017, the president signed a travel ban against six Muslim countries from getting into the U.S.A. The policy related to the first goal aimed at protecting the Americans because banned countries had a close association with terrorism. It also related to the third policy as it could help other international countries from understanding its values against terrorist groups. [7]

Gerrymandering is a concept that focuses on manipulating boundaries to favor a certain party.

The first method used is cracking, which involves dilution of the supporters of an opposition party. The other one is packing that involves the concentration of the votes of the opposing party’s power in a given district to minimize the power of voting in other districts.

A case involving a similar topic recently determined was that of Evenwel versus Abbott that occurred in 2016. The case stated that the total population was a permissible metric to calculate compliance with one vote for each individual. The decision involved Justice Ginsburg declining to decide whether the state had to draw districts to ensure equality of eligibility of a voter. The holding stated that the court had mandated the court allowed political participation voting short, but the court needed to grant some voters extra weight.

Bibliography

(n.d.). Trump’s Foreign Policy Moments. Retrieved December 17, 2020, from https://www.cfr.org/timeline/trumps-foreign-policy-moments

Morone, J.A. and Kersh, R., 2018. By the people: Debating American government. Oxford University Press.

[1] Morone and Kersh, 2018. By the people: Debating the American government. Oxford University Press.37

[2] Morone and Kersh, 2018. By the people; 40.

[3] Morone and Kersh, 2018. By the people; 124

[4] Morone and Kersh, 2018. By the people; 49

[5] H. (n.d.). Trump’s Foreign Policy Moments. Retrieved December 17, 2020; 1

[6] H. (n.d.). Trump’s Foreign Policy; 2

[7] H. (n.d.). Trump’s Foreign Policy Moments; 2

[8] Morone and Kersh, 2018. By the people; 124

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