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Developing Effective Rural Emergency Medical Services Systems, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

Ontological assumptions

Ontology addresses what exists in a certain world; something that can be discussed. It is ideally an area in philosophy which deals with articulating the structure and nature of the universe. This can be used to refer to terms and their definitions linked to a description of a world or a problem in question.  In this analysis, the ontological assumptions will be that there is a linear relationship between the available youth to volunteer for EMS work and the availability of the EMS workers.  It is also ontologically assumed that there will also be a relationship between the rate of youth migration and the availability of EMS workers. Ontological assumptions indicate the nature of reality, the view of the world, or the nature of problems being investigated.  This research will employ quantitative research methods, which examines the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.  Reviewing existing instruments used for data collection permits researchers to choose a current version that aligns with good validity and reliability scores.  Based on this information, this research follows an epistemological quantitative form.

Epistemological assumptions

Epistemology defines the kind of human understanding and knowledge that may be gotten through various inquiries and alternative investigation methods. The epistemological assumptions indicate the perspective of the role of the researcher in the acquisition of knowledge.  The epistemological question seeks to determine the relationship that occurs between the knower or anticipated knower and the thing that can be known.  Correlational research scrutinizes and quantifies the connection between variables using a numerical index, which is why using the quantitative methodology was more suited for this study (Babbie, 2007).  Using a correlational method allows researchers to modify any existing instrument to fit the research design by acquiring approval from the original author (Creswell, 2003).  This research will examine the epistemological assumptions that EMS workers are only derived from the present populace.  Knowledgeable researchers comprehend that ultimately, “the goal of scientific research is to produce knowledge that truly reflects the social world, not to defend pet ideas or hypotheses” (Neuman, 2006, p. 374).

Axiological assumptions

The axiological assumptions detail the role of values and the issue of objectivity or subjectivity relative to the research.  The quantitative research methodology employs a systemic process that utilizes various techniques to gather quantifiable data for the development of new information about phenomena to probe possible relationships (Babbie, 2007).  The prescribed research methodology also uses deductive approaches that proceed along a linear path, which emphasizes the explicit standardized procedures used to measure variables and test hypotheses that form plausible relationships (Neuman, 2006).  Axiological assumptions include the belief that only youth volunteer for EMS work.  Furthermore, quantitative research is not specifically based on pre-specified methods or comprehensive hypotheses (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005).

Methodological assumptions

Methodological assumptions dictate what the process of research is as well as the grounds for its knowledge.  Experimenter preferences, which are sampling bias and subject bias, are the major foundations of objectivity that may essentially interfere with precise investigational outcomes (Lefrancois, 2011).  The probabilities of experimenters can customarily produce one-sided examinations that are based on these expectations, which are called experimenter bias (Lefrancois, 2011).  This type of bias can influence research because it is based on what the researcher wants to happen instead of what is actually happening and can cause researchers to misrepresent findings because they will draw assumptions based on their expectations instead of actual happenings present in the research.  Subject bias occurs when subjects know they are being studied and therefore perform according to what they think the researchers are expecting (Lefrancois, 2011).  This is a quantitative correlational study using inferential statistics to test hypotheses, draw conclusions, and analyze for plausible relationships (Creswell, 2009).  The study will employ a non-experimental correlational design to determine if a relationship exists between age and the availability of EMS services in rural Texas.

References

Babbie, E. (2007). The Practice of Social Research (11th ed.). California: The Thomas Wadsworth Corporation.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Quantitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Quantitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2005). Practical research: Planning and design. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Lefrancois, G. (2011). Psychology: The Human Puzzle. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Quantitative and quantitative approaches (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Overall population and selected sampling frame

Archival research will be the primary means of data collection whereas the demographic data for the target region will be amassed for a span of 10-15 years, depending on availability.  The selected sampling frame will include data from the Census Bureau and other such reliable databases.

The eligibility criteria

The demographic data will include average ages of the populace of the target region, including ages of the EMS personnel and ages of the residents as well as their children.  The rate of youth migration will also be included to establish the availability pool of EMS workers for comparison.

The confidence level and interval

T-tests and other statistical methods will be used to calculate the statistical significance and correlations with a minimum 95% confidence level, which means that the desired outcomes are statistically probable.

The final sample size

This will be based on the overall population of the target area for the specified years.

The rationale for your strategy

Investigating the use of quantitative research designs such as historical research, interviews, case studies, and ethnographies indicated these processes explore a principal phenomenon and are described with an emerging design, which progresses with the researchers comprehension of the situation (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005).

Methodological approach

The purpose of the quantitative, collective study is to explore the relationship between age and the availability of EMS services in rural Texas.  The most significant variance between experimental designs and quasi-experimental designs is that quasi-experimental designs do not satisfy all the necessary criterion for controlling the influences of extraneous variables, particularly, groups are not randomly coordinated and experimental designs necessitate that the researcher be able to arbitrarily allocate participants to groups, and manipulate at least one internal variable (Shuttleworth, 2008a; Shuttleworth, 2008b).  The ability to randomly assign participants to a group and manipulate variables within the experimental design guarantees that the researcher will be able to confirm a cause/effect relationship between the variables (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002).  Additionally, quasi-experimental designs can indicate whether a variable has factors that have more than one value (Newman, 2011).  The independent variable (IV) is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter in being directive to examine the thesis about a specific purpose, which would be the age and migration rates, and the dependent variable (DV) is the variable that is determined by the experimenter in order to evaluate the consequences or results of the independent variable, which is the availability of EMS workers in the target area (Newman, 2011).

Correlation regulates the association between two variables in a research experiment.  Positive correlations are existent when a transformation in one variable is reproduced in a similar conversion in the other and a negative correlation is examined when a variant in one variable initiates a conflicting alteration in the other (Lefrancois, 2011).  Although it may potentially appear to be rational to simulate a positive correlation that signifies interconnection, as in one variable being the source or foundation of another, this is not frequently the situation (Lefrancois, 2011).  However, if a variable does produce another, there will be a necessary indication of causation, but it is not adequate to decisively demonstrate causation and this primary supposition is identified as the correlation fallacy (Lefrancois, 2011).

References

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2005). Practical research: Planning and design. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Lefrancois, G. (2011). Psychology: The Human Puzzle. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Newman, M. (2011). Research methods in psychology. San Diego,CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Shuttleworth, M. (2008a). Quasi-Experimental Design. Retrieved from Explorable: http://explorable.com/quasi-experimental-design.html

Shuttleworth, M. (2008b). True Experimental Design. Retrieved from Explorable: http://explorable.com/true-experimental-design.html

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