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Development Through Lifespan, Essay Example

Pages: 7

Words: 1856

Essay

Vaccines or immunizations can cause adverse effects in children. The risk increases among sick children, or those who have recently been ill. Most common risks associated with immunizations to children are the risk of a live or attenuated virus that will actually cause the infection that the vaccine is supposed to prevent; the risk of damage by neurotoxic materials found in some vaccines; and allergic reactions and the development of auto-immune response.

Children who are not immunized could potentially contract a serious illness, or infect others who have already received their vaccines, or who are too young to be immunized. The majority of vaccines are only 95 percent effective.

Children cannot enroll in kindergarten unless they have proof of immunizations, or can if the parents can provide proof of religious or health reasons why the child has not been immunized.

History of child’s health record; in other words, has he been sick lately? If so, with what? For example, if a child is known to be allergic to some vaccine, this would be a limiting factor. Also religious reasons are sufficient for immunization refusal.

Elements of Dr. Wakefield’s 1998 manuscript that links the MMR vaccine to autism have been falsified. The entire research paper has been discredited.

He is a former surgeon and medical researcher. In 2010, he was struck off the Medical Register, based on his dishonest and unethical research claims. He is barred from practicing medicine in the United Kingdom.

Immunization rates are higher in other developed nations than in the U.S. Thus, the US has lower incidences of major illnesses that are commonly passed between children in other countries.

Mandatory regulations to administer immunizations to children before entering school, research-based evidence that vaccines prevent serious illnesses, and positive effect of vaccines on general public. The United States is able to do this for a number of reasons. Schools are considered public institutions and so fall under the assumption that government is repeonsible to maintain the well being of its occupants. Also, education with respects to the risks associated with groups of children sharing limited space within a building for a long period of time helps people understand the necessity. Finally, the US is economically capable of executing the provision.

According to Piaget’s theory of egocentrism, the child would say her brother saw her standing in the window. She is unable to view a situation from another person’s perspective. So, she automatically couches the observation from her worldview where she is at the center. In a successive stage of development, the child might be able to say she called to her brother while he was playing, but she’s not sure if he saw her.

According to Piaget’s theory of conservation, the child may think that her brother took more juice. This is because children under the age of five are unable to understand the concept of conservation.

The task is called the conservation experiment.

She is unable to gather that the different shapes of the cups make it appear so. She cannot logically reason that they have the same amount of juice, but in different sized glasses. This is normal for this stage in development that the concepts volume with repect to shape are not fully comprehended.

The brother would understand that both containers have equal amounts of juice because he is older and has a better understanding of mental developments. He is now in the concrete operational stage.

Such an educator would communicate the process of the juice and the containers to the child. Through external speech, the child would gain a better understanding of her environment and what is taking place with the juice.The technique of assisting a student through difficult understandings such that they are able to negotiate greater obstacles in the future is called scaffolding. Its like riding a bike. You use training wheels until you get the hang of it.

The moon stays in orbit due to a centripetal force between the earth and the moon. In other words, earth’s gravitational forces keep the moon in orbit.

That is how they were taught by society.

Two memory strategies older children and adults can use to retrieve learned information are visual images or word substitution and cue developments to retrieve stored information.

Recognition memory is remembering something by recalling it from memory whereas recognition memory is remembering something by seeing something (a person, an object, or a place) that triggers a memory.

Old-new recognition, forced choice recognition, use of mental chronometry, and dual process models are used to test recognition memory.

Cued recall and serial recall are used to test recall memory.

Memory recall in nursing is required to retrieve medical terms and applications. Lack of accurate memory retrieval could result in improper patient care.

A school based environment has a high teacher-student ratio, whereas homeschooling has a smaller student-teacher ratio. A child that learns to read in a home-school setting will get more attention from his or her teacher and thus be more successful.

According to recent research, Baby Einstein and other commercial intelligence-boosting videos had an adverse effect on children aged between 8 and 16 months. When this age group was exposed to these videos, they had significantly lower scores on language development tests than children who were not exposed to the videos.

Reported outcomes of Sesame Street educational television shows include improved cognitive skills for its viewers. It also effectively teaches children the difference between positive and negative emotions.

Education and health outcomes of children who watch several hours of entertainment television daily differ based on the content of television programs. Young boys who watched violent cartoon shows were found to be more aggressive. Children aged 3-5 who watched entertainment television for several hours a week had lower grades than their peers and were less sociable. Children who viewed programs that could scare them had increased heart rates and developed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

When a child has their own television in their bedroom they become increasingly unmotivated.

Infants have reduced auditory sensitivity. In other words, they have an improved threshold of higher over lower frequencies. They can identify meaningful sounds over other auditory stimuli.

Cooing are vowel-like noises and babbling is an attempt to imitate human speech.

Yes, deaf infants coo and babble which indicates that speech is an innate human quality.

Parents can use joint attention to children gain language skills by engaging with the child, making a sound, and asking the child to respond.

An additional beneficial outcome of joint attention is that it lessens isolation associated with autism.

For most children, language skill develops in the left hemisphere.

Language skill for deaf children who use sign language develops in the left hemisphere because sign language is language, after all and all language skills for humans develop in the left hemisphere. Brocha’s area is the mass believed to be most associated with language acquisition.

Also called the Monster Experiment; Wendell Johnson supervised a study conducted by Mary Tudor, in which she praised certain children for using language correctly and belittled other for improper use of language. She called the children who made language errors stutterers, and eventually they started to stutter naturally.

The study proved that stuttering was not caused by a cerebral imbalance and that it can be likened to a learned behavior.

Early childhood learning is voluntary and refreshing whereas school-based learning is mandatory. Children are reluctant to express similar enthusiasm for learning when they feelthey have no choices.

After autonomy, children have to work on initiative v. guilt.

In order to work on this challenge, a child may develop risk-taking behaviors, such as riding a bike without a helmet.

A parent could make the child aware of the consequences of their actions while supporting them to make a rational choice. If parents discourages this stage of development, the child may develop guilt about their desires, and may not be able to make connects between risk–taking behavior and self-harm before it is too late. So, some socialization is necessary to increase the survival potential of the individual, but from a rudemtary psychology, it all just seems like limiting factors which is generally regarded with disdain.

Authoritarian parents could cause the child to develop psychological problems of overwhelming guilt and frustration. A child may start throwing objects or hitting others as a result.

Unresolved difficulties in this Eriksonian stage could result in aggressive adults.

Empathy is a learned behavior and children rely on their parents to teach it to them.

Emotional requirements in med school are often ignored or not regarded as important. Plus, it empathy suggest a concern for the well being of another, and sometimes showing too much emotion can hinder the healing processes of the patient. It is better to seem stoic than worried.

Develop and implement strategies that can help with stress management and set boundaries with regards to workloads.

It provides children with cognitive standards that they can use to evaluate their conduct.

About 80 percent

Hypothetical example of inductive discipline could be when a parent finds out a child misbehaved. The parent sits the child down and asks the child to explain what he or she did that was wrong, why it was wrong and what effects their wrongdoing will have on themselves, as well as on others.

Both methods require interaction between two people with a third object or situation present. The parent and the child is engaged while the misbehaving is the tertiary issue.

Although corporal punishment may be effective to ensure immediate compliant behavior, it could instill the erroneous idea that punishment leads to results. It teaches kids that it is ok to hit someone when you are angry.

Timeouts, consequences, explaining why the child is punished, not rescuing older kids from mistakes, positive reinforcement, no physical punishment.

Through socialization with peers. If their peers come from non-criminal backgrounds, the child may have an opportunity to understand that there are other ways to life from experiences they share with their friends.

Proactive aggression is predatory and calculated – a child picks on a smaller child and bullies him every day. Reactive aggression is fear-based and impulsive. Hostile aggression is a type of reactive aggression – an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger with the intent to inflict pain.

Examples of proactive aggression in adulthood could be a calculated act with intent of harming another person. Reactive aggression in adulthood could be an impulsive reaction sparked out of fear or anger.

We are legally required to make a report when we suspect child abuse.

They fear further punishment from the parents, if the parents find out the child divulged such information.

First, abuse is more prevalent among families with a lower SES than in families with a higher SES; second, because of the regularity of abuse in low SES communities, more people are aware of proper protocol in the event of abuse, and third, abuse happens to all age groups and some of the abused report instances of abuse to authorities with the hopes of having the abuser punished.Also, people in more affluent communities tend to be people of power, and others often do not wish to rock the boat.

They are reluctant because they fear that their involvement may escalate the frequency and severity of abuse for the abused.

Community programs that could have a positive impact on society, such as substance abuse treatment programs, respite care programs for families that have disabled children, and parent education programs.

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