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Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Research Paper Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1076

Research Paper

Diabetes mellitus (DM), better known as diabetes, is a major public health problem all over the world. As of 1997, WHO (World Health Organization) assessed its occurrence in the world to be higher than 135 million, and a further projection of its increase by 125% by the year 2025 (America Diabetes Association). In the Sultanate of Oman, the non-insulin dependent mellitus (NIDDM) is particularly a major public health concern. Diabetes has become a major public health problem in the United States according to the various sources of information available within the country. Numerous studies have been conducted in the United States to review and research the prevalence of diabetes on the general population, its effects on the socio-economic, ethnic genetic and lifestyle aspects of the community.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)

This type of diabetes is caused by a conglomerate of factors that cause the body to be incapable of producing enough insulin effectively. The factors include:

  1. Physical inactivity and Obesity
  2. Genetic Susceptibility
  3. Insulin Resistance
  4. Anomalous Glucose Production by Liver

Effects of Diabetes on the general Health

  1. Extreme hunger
  2. Lack of or gradual loss of sensation in feet
  3. Poor healing of wounds and cuts
  4. Weakness
  5. Weight loss
  6. Frequent feeling of thirst
  7. Need to urinate from time to time (Springer, Silverstein and Copeland)

T2DM and Obesity

The major modifiable risk factor to developing type 2 diabetes is being overweight. It has generally been found in numerous studies that those who are diagnosed with obesity are just about 5 times more likely to develop T2DM (Springer, Silverstein and Copeland). This close association between T2DM and obesity determines the extent to which both conditions affect the patient. The severity of obesity usually determines the severity of T2DM.

T2DM in Children and Adolescents

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has largely been associated with adults. This is because T1DM symptoms usually start showing later on in life, usually after their mid-twenties. However, over the past 30 years, there has been a growing and worrying trend in North America, where the number of T2DM diagnoses in individuals below the age of 18 years has been increasing. While this type of diabetes was initially confined to adult patients, the number of T2DM diagnoses in patient under the age of 18 is 1 in every 3 diagnoses of diabetes. This statistic is found to possess a disproportionate representation of the minority populations.

The growing number of T2DM cases being reported in children is increasingly posing a challenge to physicians who are not equipped to treat adult diseases in children. Traditional diabetes training and educational materials have been developed specifically defining treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). As such, these treatments place considerable emphasis on monitoring glucose levels and treating using insulin (Springer, Silverstein and Copeland). This type of treatment may or may not be suitable for children depicting T2DM symptoms. Furthermore. T2DM medication has been tested and approved for use in individuals above the age of 18 years. Use of this medication in adolescents and children may have considerable side effects on such patients.

Dietary Intake

It is with great concern that the most recent National food intake data depicts that a huge percentage of children between the ages of 12 and 15 consume to little servings of nutrient-dense foods. Foods such as dairy foods, vegetables, whole grains and fruits are consumed in very little quantities by children between this age brackets (America Diabetes Association).

According to recent research, current dietary patterns practiced in most single-parent African American homes are not consistent to healthy living standards and practices that are prescribed by professionals in the field of nutrition and diet. Most boys between the age the age of 12 and 15 consume too much sweetened beverages, fat and sodium, while avoiding whole grains, vegetables, low-fat and fat-free milk products and fruits.

The deficiency of nutrients that are much needed by the body during the adolescent period has led to the increase of cases of chronic disease amongst children at that age. This has further been compounded by the increasing amount of intake in unhealthy foods. Below are some of the dietary health issues that have been found to be caused by a dysfunctional or unhealthy diet.

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Dental complications (America Diabetes Association)

From the synthesized literature, diabetes treatment and management is very costly to the point where government may not have adequate resources to cover all patients. As such, there is need for cheaper and/or more affordable alternative in the fight against diabetes. The State of Alabama has in the past 5 years been the leading state in diabetes prevalence within the population. The State is currently plagued by an obesity problem that is considerably linked to the diabetes problem within the States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). With the cost of diabetes treatment gradually increasing in the past decade, it is integral to state’s success that alternative cheaper alternatives be developed to help in the management and mitigation of the diabetes problem within the statement.

Annotated Bibliography

America Diabetes Association. “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd2015.” The Journal of Clinical and Applied Research and Education 38 (2015): 551-594. Electronic Source.

This is the main source for this research. The source focuses on all the existing and new developments in the diagnosis, treatment and management of diabetes. It provides the benchmark for all information pertaining to diabetes within the United States. It is important in formulating the background for research.

Evert, Alison, et al. “Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for the Management of Adults With Diabetes.” Diabetes Care36 (2013): 3821-3841. Electronic Source.

This source is a vital secondary source for the research. This source provides essential information on the latest and most efficient management techniques employed in treating adults with T2DM. It is important in helping analyzing effective diabetes management techniques in adults.

Springer, Shelley, et al. “Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents.” Pediatrics 131.2 (2013): 648-664. Electronic Source.

This is a vital secondary source of information highlights the increasing prevalence of T2DM in children and adolescents. This source is important in helping develop a clear picture of the new trends in diagnosis of diabetes in individuals under 18 years of age.

Works Cited

America Diabetes Association. “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd2015.” The Journal of Clinical and Applied Research and Education 38 (2015): 551-594. Electronic Source.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alabama County Data. 15 February 2015. <http://gis.cdc.gov/grasp/diabetes/DiabetesAtlas.html>.

Evert, Alison, et al. “Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for the Management of Adults With Diabetes.” Diabetes Care36 (2013): 3821-3841. ELectronic Source.

Gatineau, Mary, et al. Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes. London: PHE publications, 2014. Electtronic Source.

Springer, Shelley, et al. “Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents.” Pediatrics 131.2 (2013): 648-664. Electronic Source.

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