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Domestic Violence in Relationships, Term Paper Example

Pages: 13

Words: 3442

Term Paper

In any healthy relationship, both partners should feel safe and protected. However, many individuals are abused in such relationships. Domestic violence encompasses a variety of actions one spouse uses to dominate or control the other. Physical, emotional, sexual, financial, and stalker abuse are examples of this. Domestic violence may take various forms, from emotional abuse to physical aggression, and both victims and offenders can suffer severe repercussions. Domestic violence is a severe issue that may leave both victims and perpetrators with long-term consequences. Again, it may take various forms, from emotional abuse to physical assault, and both victims and perpetrators can suffer terrible effects. This report examines current research on domestic violence and its consequences on relationships to identify knowledge gaps and recommend future research possibilities.

The Influence of Community Violence on the Functioning of Women Victims

According to Bogat et al. (2005), violence can be described differently. This can be in the form of threats where emotional damage is caused or the use of weapons where physical damage is brought about (Bogat et al., 2005). All types of violence are traumatizing; however, some are more likely to end in severe injury or death than others. IPV is a significant issue with long-term consequences for victims, families, and society. Community violence is a substantial public health concern in the United States, according to Bogat et al. (2005). This is more likely with the survivors of marital abuse who are still prone to acts of violence within the community. This is because these victims live in areas where crimes are inevitable; therefore, due to their traumatic experiences, they may be unable to defend themselves against any form of violence from certain perpetrators (Bogat et al., 2005). Such acts of aggression from the community may have detrimental effects on these victims. Some of the effects that these aggressions may bring about include substance abuse, depression, PTSD symptoms, and nervousness (Bogat et al., 2005). Community violence plays a major part in retaining victims of domestic violence in their predicaments. This is because they lack the proper finances to get started independently and mostly do not have individuals who would help them get through this (Bogat et al., 2005).

Due to recurring acts of physical abuse within domestic forums, the victims mostly fall prey to such situations and may be assaulters or victims of assaults  (Bogat et al., 2005). Therefore, due to these experiences, these individuals are drone to violence as an impulsive state of mind. In addition, underemployment rates have been a major cause of domestic violence since disputes are likely to occur often. This research aimed to look at the link between the community and intimate partner violence. The researchers utilized information from a group of women recruited from inner-city health clinics throughout the United States. Some of the individuals included in the study are women who were childless and 18 and above and those with children below the age of 18 years. The authors employed a range of criteria to evaluate community violence exposure, including being a victim of violence and residing in a high-violence area (Bogat et al., 2005). They also utilized indicators of domestic violence, such as physical, sexual, emotional, and financial assault.

Community violence was not shown to predict domestic violence in this research. This remained true even when other risk factors, including poverty, unemployment, and domestic violence, were considered. According to the authors, community violence is not a direct cause of intimate relationship violence, but it may be a contributing element. They also imply that initiatives to reduce communal violence may have little effect on domestic violence.

It is important to understand that spousal abuse has a huge effect on a victim of domestic violence (Bogat et al., 2005). In addition, physical health issues such as persistent pain, gastrointestinal issues, and headaches may also result.

Although the authors acknowledged that their results were not conclusive, they indicated that communal violence might be a risk factor for intimate relationship violence. They also highlighted that measures to decrease community violence might have other advantages, such as lowering the mental and physical health issues linked with violence exposure. According to the authors, community violence may not directly cause intimate relationship violence, but it may contribute. In addition, community violence may have long-term psychological and physical consequences.

Domestic Violence and Media

In the United States, domestic violence is both common and detrimental; however, most people still do not understand it well. One of the researches shows that the individuals exposed to media violence are more prone to committing IPV on themselves or other people. For individuals who had been convicted of domestic abuse acts, this bond was very strong. According to these results, media violence may be a risk factor for intimate relationship violence. Given our society’s high frequency of media violence, it’s critical to comprehend its possible influence on IPV. This understanding may guide efforts to reduce IPV in our communities via prevention and intervention.

This research aimed to see how media violence affects domestic violence. The men in the study were all spending time in a California state jail for domestic abuse. The research was conducted through self-report questionnaires, and then the data collected was analyzed through certain regression methods. The report’s findings unveiled that exposure to media violence contributed more to physical domestic violence than domestic psychological violence. These results show that media violence may influence the development of violent behaviors toward intimate relationships. Even after monitoring for other key characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, education, and wealth, Gavin& Kruis (2022) found that men involved in an abusive relationship were more likely to be involved in cases of domestic violence. Future studies should ask respondents to name the media they consume and investigate the association between that consumption and different types of crime. For example, it could be worthwhile to investigate the link between exposure to different forms of pornography and the acceptance of domestic violence ideas and perpetration rates (Gavin & Kruis, 2022). This might also be indicative of a catharsis or media cultivation effect. Finally, the survey questions utilized terms like “husband” and “wife,” which narrowed the scope of domestic abuse. Future studies should adjust the survey’s phrasing to look at views of domestic abuse among intimate partners rather than simply spouses. The relationship between acts of violence and exposure to violence is difficult to define. This is because recent contradicting studies state that exposure to entertaining media violence does not influence any form of domestic violence. Our research has various flaws that should be acknowledged. First, the findings are based on cross-sectional research and so cannot be used to prove causation’s possible; for instance, men who have engaged in family abuse are more inclined to obtain violent content. On the other hand, the consumption of violent media may lead to the adoption of aggressive views and, as a result, an increased risk of committing domestic violence (Gavin & Kruis, 2022). To separate the probable directionality of this association, a further longitudinal study is required. Furthermore, our research comprised individuals who had previously been engaged in the criminal justice system; therefore, the study’s findings may be inconclusive. Another possible flaw is that we used self-report methods to evaluate domestic abuse perpetration. Due to social desirability bias, some males probably underreported their domestic violence. However, owing to memory biases or definition uncertainty, it’s probable that some males overreported their domestic violence. To address these concerns, we employed a self-reported measure of severe physical violence perpetration demonstrated, which was linked with other self-perpetration measures (Gavin & Kruis, 2022). The results can also be because the authors used certain violent exposures that showed a strong covalence with other violent media exposures (Gavin & Kruis, 2022). Despite these attempts, there may still be some measurement inaccuracy. More objective measurements of exposure to violent media and domestic violence should be used in the future study. Finally, the authors do not account for key characteristics that have been linked to domestic violence, including overall aggression/violence, drug use, and impulsivity (Gavin & Kruis, 2022). These control factors should be included in future studies. The authors recognized that their research had significant limitations. The first is that the findings are based on cross-sectional research, which means they cannot prove causation. The key problem is that the population was drawn from people who had already been involved with the judicial system, limiting the generalization of the study. Third, the researchers assessed spousal abuse occurrence using self-report variables, which could be subject to social biasness. Fourth, the authors failed to account for key characteristics that have been linked to domestic violence. Despite these limitations, the authors feel this research adds to our understanding of domestic violence and media exposure. However, this should be improved by using more objective metrics in studies carried out in the future. The research was also focused on determining if an individual’s psychological health through the criminal justice system would influence their behavior towards physical violence or if their behavior is linked to media violence. The results were that high violent media exposure was a significant determinant of domestic and physical violence. Therefore, the conclusion is that media violence majorly influences domestic violence. Moreover, the findings bring about certain effects on public policy and preventive efforts, given the severe repercussions of domestic violence. Future studies should replicate these results in other groups and use better ways to solve this menace. Furthermore, the study should have been linked more to finding the factors contributing to domestic violence, especially when the partner has been exposed to media violence.

Lifting the Domestic Violence Cloak of Silence

According to O’Brien et al. (2013), domestic violence is a huge societal problem with harmful implications for women, children, and families. It is described as a behavior that seeks control over others. When children see domestic violence in their families, they face various issues. They may have difficulty sleeping, experience headaches or stomachaches, or have academic difficulties (O’Brien et al., 2013). Additionally, they may withdraw, grow furious, or even become aggressive. When the victim is being abused, some children may strive to protect her and interfere. Others may attempt to ignore or pretend that nothing is occurring. Women persist in violent relationships for a variety of reasons. They may be concerned about the consequences of leaving. They could think the abuser will change or that the violence is their responsibility. They may also be financially dependent on the abuser or have no one to turn to for assistance.

The current research has contributed to the area by presenting an in-depth investigation of six adult female participants’ retrospective reports of experiencing domestic abuse as children. This study’s results have ramifications for social workers, psychologists, therapists, and counselors who deal with clients who have experienced domestic abuse as children (O’Brien et al., 2013).

The findings are hoped to help professionals gain a better understanding of:

  • How do children living in homes affected by violence and who believe it to be the norm make sense of their experiences;
  • How they attempt to cope with what they have seen and heard

This research is also intended to urge professionals to consider the possible ramifications of their values and beliefs while dealing with clients who have seen domestic abuse as children (O’Brien et al., 2013). This research would be significant to policymakers

Even though the results from this research are vital, they are not final. As a result, further study in this area is required. Future studies should: (I) use larger and more diverse samples of participants; (ii) use qualitative methodologies to capture the voices of different groups of children who witness domestic violence (O’Brien et al., 2013). Although the authors acknowledged that the results of this research are preliminary, they stated that they have consequences for social workers, psychologists, therapists, and counsellors who deal with clients who had seen domestic abuse as children (O’Brien et al., 2013). The findings are hoped to help professionals understand how abused children who feel violence is the norm make sense of their experiences and how they develop resilience in such challenges. This research is also intended to urge professionals to consider the possible ramifications of their values and beliefs while dealing with clients who have seen domestic abuse as children (O’Brien et al., 2013). Policymakers will benefit from the results of this research.

The research facilitates our knowledge of how children who witness domestic violence process their experiences. Additionally, the results have ramifications for professionals dealing with clients who have experienced domestic abuse as children. Finally, the results suggest that more novel and developmentally appropriate therapies for children who experience domestic violence are needed.

Parents and partners: Moderating domestic violence among the young adults

Parents may influence their children’s attitudes and views about relationships by demonstrating acceptable conduct. For example, according to the study, when mothers use physical action against their husbands, their daughters are likely to emulate the behavior (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2017). Moreover, this is similar to fathers who showcase aggressive conduct and are more likely to pass that on to their children (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2017). Similarly, IPV victimization and perpetration are linked to relationship traits. Young people who face the most physical abuse are mostly linked to envious or controlling partners (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2017). IPV also affects individuals who have partners inclined to violence (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2017). Physical violence, for instance, is brought about by envy and the need for control rather than the urge for violence, according to Kaufman-Parks et al. ( 2017).

Partner violence in adolescence and early adulthood is influenced by parental and partner variables, according to Kaufman et al. (2017). The authors tested their hypothesis that partner violence is linked to worse relationship quality, lower self-esteem, and greater levels of psychological distress (Kaufman et al., 2017). Physical, sexual, and emotional violence are the three categories of relationship violence identified by the authors. The study also showed that the most likely perpetrators are the males while the victims are females (Kaufman et al., 2017). Furthermore, the results revealed that some risk pointers, including being in a relationship with someone who has a history of violence, having a violent parent, or having a history of violence, enhance the probability of suffering partner violence. The authors also discovered that some protective variables, such as having a close connection with one’s parents, having a supportive spouse, or having high self-esteem, might minimize the probability of suffering partner violence (Kaufman et al., 2017). Based on their results, the authors propose that treatments targeted at decreasing partner violence should concentrate on enhancing relationship quality and raising self-esteem (Kaufman et al., 2017). One of the study’s weaknesses is that it did not look at the long-term repercussions of partner violence on people’s life. Future research should overcome this restriction by undertaking longitudinal studies that track individuals throughout time. Furthermore, future research should seek to examine the generalizability of the results from this study by employing larger representative samples of the population.

Inducing jealousy and domestic violence among young adults

Jealousy develops when one or both couples believe their self-esteem is endangered by a genuine or perceived connection between their spouse and someone else, according to Kaufman et al. (2019). Their parental environment influences how people behave to envious circumstances later in life. The authors looked at whether the quality of a relationship was a predictor of jealousy induction and discovered that it wasn’t. This contradicts a prior study, which revealed that jealousy is generally negatively associated with relationship quality. The research states that “People in better relationships may feel safer (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2019). On average, respondents reported few jealousy-inducing behaviors and nil or few occurrences of violence for the two dependent variables. Results from multivariate analysis predicting jealousy induction. Additionally, IPV was mostly reported by mostly envious individuals. This backs up the theory that people’s reactions to envy and intimate partner violence are linked. Despite these flaws, the research emphasizes how envy contributes to intimate partner violence. It is also linked to individuals who had prior exposure to violence, leading to more violence (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2019). Young people’s experiences with IPV in their relationships were investigated in recent qualitative research published in Violence Against Women. Data were collected from 20 individuals between 18 and 25 using a semi-structured interview method (Kaufman-Parks et al., 2019). According to the research findings, inducing envy was a prevalent method employed by abusers to manipulate their relationships. Participants also expressed feelings of isolation and loneliness, as well as a lack of confidence in others.

This research sheds light on the experiences of young people who have been subjected to IPV. These results may aid in developing treatments and preventative strategies targeted at lowering the prevalence of IPV in partnerships. Although the breadth of this research is restricted, it contributes significantly to our knowledge of IPV. Future studies should focus on the experiences of those impacted by IPV and the variables that lead to its spread and continuation. According to the authors, intimate partner violence is a severe issue to be addressed. They also believed that their research gave useful insight into the experiences of IPV victims. Future studies should be pursued to create more effective preventative and intervention strategies. This emphasizes the necessity of domestic violence intervention and prevention programs for families at risk. Domestic abuse is a significant issue with long-term consequences for victims and their families. Domestic abuse victims often experience physical and mental harm and financial hardship. They may also struggle to trust others and build healthy relationships. Domestic abuse victims’ families may face communication issues, financial challenges, and emotional pain. Intervention and preventive programs that target families at risk of domestic violence are critical to minimizing the prevalence of domestic violence and its detrimental impacts on victims and their families. Families should be helped to develop healthy communication skills, settle the conflict in nonviolent ways, and form strong connections via such programs.

It might be difficult to recognize the indicators that someone you know is in an abusive relationship. Abusers often attempt to exert total control over their victims’ lives. For example, they may watch their victim’s social media profiles, call and text messages, and dictate what they dress and who they spend time with. Abusers may also attempt to exert financial control over their victims, making it harder for them to leave the relationship. According to Kaufman-Parks et al. (2019), publicizing some of the signals associated with domestic violence is a great step toward minimizing and eradicating such abuses. According to Kaufman-Parks et al.(2019), intimate partner violence may be influenced by various circumstances. Childhood exposure to violence, seeing violence in one’s neighborhood, poverty, and gender inequality are some of these causes.

Conclusion

Even though domestic violence is a detrimental vice, it can be prevented if the proper channels are taken. Domestic violence intervention and prevention programs that target at-risk families may assist in minimizing the incidence of domestic abuse and its harmful consequences for victims and their families. Families should be helped to develop healthy communication skills, settle the conflict in nonviolent ways, and form strong connections via such programs. We can all help prevent abuse by raising public knowledge about the warning indicators of abuse. We can also contribute to building a safer and more fair society for everyone. Even though intimate partner violence is a complicated issue with no simple answers, we must continue to fight to avoid it.

Reference

Bogat, G. A., Leahy, K., Eye, A. V., Maxwell, C., Levendosky, A. A., & Davidson, W. S. (2005). The influence of community violence on the functioning of women experiencing domestic violence. American Journal of Community Psychology36(1), 123-132.

Gavin, S. M., & Kruis, N. E. (2022). The Influence of Media Violence on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: An Examination of Inmates’ Domestic Violence Convictions and Self-Reported Perpetration. Gender issues, 39(2), 177-197.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-021-09284-5

Kaufman-Parks, A. M., DeMaris, A., Giordano, P. C., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2017). Parents and partners: Moderating and mediating influences on intimate partner violence across adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of social and personal relationships34(8), 1295-1323.

Kaufman-Parks, A. M., Longmore, M. A., Giordano, P. C., & Manning, W. D. (2019). Inducing jealousy and intimate partner violence among young adults. Journal of social and personal relationships36(9), 2802-2823.

O’Brien, K. L., Cohen, L., Pooley, J. A., & Taylor, M. F. (2013). Lifting the domestic violence cloak of silence: Resilient Australian women’s reflected memories of their childhood experiences of witnessing domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence28(1), 95-108.

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