Effects of Poverty on Educational and Life, Literature Review Example

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Literature Review

According to Minijun, Delamonica, Gonzalez, and Davidziuk (2005), the similar areas of study that lead up to the current research include the fact that all or most of the children living in communities, which are highly impacted by poverty find it difficult to adjust into the roles of nation building and the education sector. This is occasioned by the negative social and economic impacts of abject poverty. According to Minijun et.al (2005), education for many children, living in the poverty stricken areas is not a priority especially with the increase in inequality regarding education policies that are not favorable to the poor. The situation is accentuated by the rising poverty in most countries especially within the African countries. Another similar area of study is the effects that poverty has on the culture and outcome of youth that have been brought up in the difficult conditions without any book knowledge or worldview that comes from studying. These include but are not limited to crime, drugs, prostitution, and high prevalence of HIV and AIDS.

According to Minijun et.al (2005), the current situation in most poverty-stricken countries is getting from worse to worst. With population growth reaching unprecedented highs, there is strain placed on resources, which continue to be depleted without being replenished. Minijun et.al (2005) concur that current policy frameworks need thorough reviewing in order to cater for this multi-facet problem of poverty which is linked to negative life experiences (social ills) and the global HIV and AIDS scourge with children being worst hit.

This literature focuses on negative impacts of poverty and is necessary in developing the case for this study, which focuses on effects of poverty on educational and life experiences of children and young people.

According to Lindsey (2009), areas in her research that lead up to current study include the measures that determine the socioeconomic status, which is characterized by massive inequality. Poverty or riches are measured and determined by the extent of control on available resources, which are few and scarce. Inequality in distribution of economic resources, according to her is the cause of abject poverty for a section of society that accounts for the larger part. Lindsey (2009) asserts that the level of wealth and assets for a household are very important in determining the outcomes for children in their academics as well as their youth and adult life. According to Lindsey (2009), poverty is a vicious cycle. It affects parents and in turn, their children with this cycle repeating itself repeatedly again trough concurrent generations. Therefore, poverty hampers the improvement of children’s chances in life as opposed to those who live in better or wealthy conditions.

According to Lindsey (2009), the status on this topic shows that the disparity between the poor and the rich is nowhere near being resolved. With most economic systems in the world leaning towards capitalism, the rich is getting richer and the poor getting poorer. Current research shows that there is profound relationship between childhood conditions and long-term outcomes in adulthood. The current statistics indicate that young adults raised in wealthy homes are more likely to exhibit positive outcomes such as graduation from high school and enrolling into college, as opposed to their counterparts whose dropout rate is alarming.

Lindsey (2009) attributes poverty to such inconsistencies in education among the poor. Lindsey (2009) links the inequality in distribution of wealth (resources) to the differences in educational and life experiences of children and young people (those living in poverty and those brought up in riches).

According to Mattingly, Johnson, and Schaefer (2011), similar areas of study that lead up to the current research include demographic studies (analysis) which have established that there are high populations of children in the poorest of places. This study shows that children are increasingly living where poverty continues to persist. Mattingly et.al (2011) asserts that this persistent high poverty affects children more than population in general. According to Mattingly et.al (2011), there is a disproportionate likelihood of rural areas having high child poverty. The rural lifestyle does not demand much and education for children is a preserve of a few. According to Mattingly et.al (2011), persistent child poverty shapes and forms life experiences in young adults who in turn form the adult population.

According to Mattingly et.al (2011), the main reason for such widespread concern associated with child poverty stems from the fact that it has a tendency of recurring in the same places. The effects of this child poverty as stipulated in the report by Mattingly et.al (2011) ranges from lack of proper education and most likely, none at all, to child labor and misdemeanor behavior from hardships faced in life. According to Mattingly et.al (2011), status on the topic shows that between the years 1985 and 2009 more than twice the countries experienced this persistent child poverty than the number before this period. Status on the topic also shows that recent recession has greatly contributed to the increase in child poverty.

The literature reviewed according to Mattingly et.al (2011), goes on to identify the countries in which child poverty has persisted, describing their distribution geographically and identifying their characteristics. The characteristics given in the study by Mattingly et.al (2011) show the effects of child poverty their educational and life experiences.

According to Brooks-Gunn, and Duncan (2007), the similar areas of study that lead up to the current research include their research on how poverty affects children and their future outcome. Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (2007) measure the effects of the duration, timing, and depth of poverty on children. They also explore other characteristics of the family and their relation to poverty as well as child outcomes. The article by Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (2007) places deeper focus on recent sets of studies, which explore the correlation that exists between the variables, poverty, and child outcomes. Poverty according to Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (2007) is the scarcity or lack of certain material possessions that are necessary for the actualization of dreams as well as management of day-to-day expenses.

Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (2007) concur with this research by their findings which assert that family income though selectively, has quite some substantial effects on the well-being of children and adolescents (young adults). Family income seems to have stronger relation to ability of children as well as their achievement as opposed to their emotional outcomes. Worst outcomes are evident in the children living in extreme poverty for longer periods. These outcomes are negative and include such social ills as prostitution and crime.

According to Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (2007), currently, poverty is on the rise in most parts of the world with more and more households struggling to meet their basic needs (food, clothing, and shelter) due to lack of enough income. In order to survive, the current trend in these poor households is to forego education and comfort. The literature reviewed in Brooks-Gunn & Duncan (2007) shows that there is a definite relationship between family income and levels of poverty and the interrelation of these variables to educational and life experiences of children and young people.

According to Vleminckx, and Smeeding (2001), the similar areas of study that lead up to the current research involve examining child well-being, child poverty, and child policy in modern nations. These are important topics and areas of examination that aid in establishing the effects of poverty on educational and life experiences of children and young adults. Vleminckx & Smeeding (2001) discuss the various concepts of child poverty and alternative definitions of children living in poverty. They also discuss the measurement efforts regarding child poverty, child well-being and child policy. Vleminckx & Smeeding (2001) are keen to emphasize on the need for countries and international organizations to move beyond child welfare as the basis of their concern for children to considering the well-being of children. In doing this, attention is paid to income transfers, educational and healthcare programs, employment policies friendly to families in order to alleviate poverty, as well as benefits and services for children that will aid in bettering their life experiences.

Vleminckx & Smeeding (2001) assert that currently the goals of child well-being are not yet achieved in many poverty-stricken nations and areas. They further assert that the current need is for those in leadership to formulate policies that will aid in realization of child well-being. This literature by Vleminckx & Smeeding (2001) helps to shed more light on the problems and effects of poverty on all issues affecting children living poverty, which include educational and life experiences.

References

Brooks-Gunn, J., and Duncan, G. (2007). The effects of poverty on children. The future of   children, pp. 55–71

Lindsey, D. (2009). Child poverty and inequality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mattingly, M., Johnson, K. and Schaefer, A. (2011). More poor kids in more poor places: children increasingly live where poverty persists. Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire

Minijun, A., Delamonica, E., Gonzalez, E., and Davidziuk, A. (2005). Children living in poverty. Desk review papers for UNICEF. [Report] New York City: UNICEF, pp. 1-55

Vleminckx, K. and Smeeding, T. (2001). Child well-being, child poverty and child policy in modern nations. Bristol, UK: Policy Press

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