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Erikson Ideas, Research Paper Example

Pages: 2

Words: 612

Research Paper

Introduction

Eric Erikson developed an eight stage theory of identity and psychological development. Ericson was heavily influenced by Freud. In developing his psychosocial theory of development Erikson looked at external influences like parents, society and how personality was developed through the varying stages of childhood. At the core of Erikson’s theories were that of ‘ego identity’ and our personal sense of self-awarenes

Stages of Psychosocial Development

s obtained through social interaction. (Harder, 2011)

He also maintained that our competence was influenced in motivating our behaviours and actions. The concept of managing this stage efficiently he referred to as ‘ego strength’ or ‘ego quality’. Erikson pointed

out that each stage people experienced conflict in the development of quality. Erikson defined 8 stages of personality development as set out in the table below. (Cherry, 2011)

The Erikson Model of Development

Erikson’s stage theory illustrates how an individual progresses through the eight stages of life from that of infancy to late adulthood. This is shown as an incremental process where each stage is built upon the satisfactory completion of earlier stages. The table below illustrates the key elements of Erikson’s 8 stage model. The grey area is the key formative education years.

Theorist Ideas and the Learning Environment

Stage Title Timescale Description
1 Trust vs. Mistrust Birth and 1 year Trust for care and security
2 Autonomy vs. Shame Early Childhood Childs increased sense of personal control
3 Intuition vs. Guilt Preschool Years Control through social interaction
4 Industry vs. Inferiority Ages 5-11 Sense of self-belief and competence
5 Identity vs. Confusion Adolescence Exploration of independence & self-worth
6 Intimacy vs. Isolation Early Adult Exploration of relationships
7 Generativity vs. Stagnation Adulthood Building lives, career and Families
8 Integrity vs. Despair Old Age Reflection on life

 

Teachers often apply psychological theories to facilitate learning. This often includes teaching Erikson’s theories at the different grade levels in the educational cycle of learning. For example at the Preschool level teachers would like the ability to focus on personality development of the child. This can be accomplished by working with the child to find projects they are interested in and help develop their abilities in this area. At the Elementary Level teachers should be more focused upon child achievement and development of peer relationships. This involves getting interaction with the students and getting them to participate in decision making. Encouraging the students to work in group sessions. It should be a learning environment without fear or conflict.

It is worth mentioning Piaget here and the similarity with Erikson theories. It was Piaget who suggested that children enter the concrete operational stage of development at around 7 years of age. As such children enter a more substantive degree of logic and reasoning over objects and events. At age 11, they reach the fourth stage of cognitive development and a formal operational stage commences. He identified four key stages of learning: 1) Sensorimotor stage – birth to 2 years of age 2) Preoperational Stage – age 2-7 ) Concrete operations – age 7-11 and 4) Formal operations – age 11 to 15. Piaget signified the importance of developing a curriculum to assist in the education of children and teachers need to be fully aware and take into consideration environmental factors in consideration of learning. Although his theory was criticised Piaget was one of the founding theorists in cognitive development and his contribution was considerable. (Shaffer, 2009).

References

Cherry, K. (2011). Eriiksons Psychological stages. Retrieved 1 1, 2012, from About.com: http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm

Harder, A. (2011). Developmental stages of Erikson. Retrieved 1 1, 2012, from Learning Places: : http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm

Shaffer, D. (2009). Piaget. Social and Personality Development , 26-27.

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