Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Research Paper Example
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Ernest M. Hemingway was a short story writer and novelist from United States whose personal life and writings exerted a great influence on the other writers of that time and afterward in United States. Most of his works are considered as American masterpiece, and some works afterward have been converted into action pictures (Baker, 1995). An assessment of Hemingway exposes number of interesting matters about his personal life, concerning to the effect on his writings, and of the styles and themes of his writings.
The Ernest M. Hemingway’s past period examination highlight number of interesting facts and assists to make a great understanding of how Hemingway came to be the master of the modest and important prose style. He was on second number out of six children which had been born to Grace and Clarence Hemingway. He was born on 21stJuly, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois (Koch, 2005). The society in which Ernest grew up was from one of stringent disciplinarians. The parents of Ernest were no exception. In reality he passes many years of his life in struggling to avoid the repressive code of behavior that was forced on Ernest as a child. After completing the graduation from high school in 1977 he decided to quit from college and instead Ernest turn out as a reporter for the Kansas City Star and he worked in this place approximately for seven months (Koch, 2005).
Ernest’s opportunity to break away appeared when he volunteered as an ambulance drive at Red Cross in Italy. At the time of serving in July 1918 beside the Piave River, he was wounded severely by fragments of the bomb that were thrown by explosion and ultimately he was pushed to go back his home after recovery from injuries in January 1919. The war had placed physical and emotional effects on Ernest, and few critics stated that he began as an effect “a quest for artistic and psychological freedom that was to direct him initially to the Northern Michigan’s secluded woods, it was the place where he enjoyed his most pleasant moments of childhood, and then he move to Europe, where his talents of literary nature started to take form.” (Bruccoli, 1991)
Here at first Ernest worked part time in the feature writer position for the Toronto Star, and then he keen to further follow his ambitions of journalistic nature. In the fall of 1920 he moved to Chicago after becoming the contributing editor of a trade journal. It was the place where he saw his first wife named as Hadley Richardson. In 1921 they got married. And in December of 1921 they moved to France and for the period of 19 months stretch him traveled over Anatolia and Europe as a foreign journalist for the Toronto Star (Trogdon,1996). In the end of 1923 both returned for a short time to Toronto and at this time their son named John was born, but Europe was still in the mind of Ernest. In the start of 1924 he left the job at the Star and went back to Paris in order to start his career as a writer.
In an analysis of Hemmingway’s writings is very much similar to the analysis of his personal life. Most of his literary work was generally based on those events that he experienced himself, or in any case which he knew entirely, within and out. Being the stickler and purist that Ernest was, he did not believe justified in writing those topics about which he was not entirely informed (Trogdon, 2003). With the help of his too much travels in Africa and Europe, in addition to other areas, he established the foundation for number of his cherished and well known stories. His work as an ambulance driver at Red Cross, previously discussed, in Italy finished by providing the location and theme of one of his most well known novels, “A Farewell to Arms” that was published in the year 1929. Most of the tales he had written, particularly in the starting years, revolves around the character called Nicholas Adams, unquestionably a personification of Hemingway himself. Merely as Ernest before him, Nick Adams spent life under the Michigan woods, moved to foreign in order to fight in the war, was wounded severely, and went back to home. (Phillips, 1999)
The stories that were earlier set in Michigan, for instance “The Three-Day Blow” and “Indian Camp” present a little Nick to be a vulnerable adolescent seeking to search his path in an overwhelmingly and severely violent confusing world. Like most of main characters of Hemingway, Nick on the ground becomes insensitive and tough. However, “critical examination has turned out in an extensive conclusion that the hardiness stems not from selfishness but from a rigid moral code that works as the sole defense of characters alongside the irresistible chaos of the world” (Phillips, 1999). Not just the experiences of Nick Adams, but his behaviors additionally seem to impersonate those of his creator.
The adventures of Ernest in 1924-1925 in Pamplona and Paris were the foundations of an unforgettable novel, “The Sun Also Rises” that assisted to develop him a reputation. The novel was immediately successful and labeled him the leader of what was named “The Lost Generation” (Reynolds, 1991). His melodrama and play in 1938 about the Spanish Civil War, “The Fifth Column” was made merely a year before during the time of stay in Madrid. In 1933-1934 Ernest went on a game called “Safari in Kenya and Tanganyika” where he turned out an eager hunter and obtained the facts for his nonfiction work that was published in 1935 and named as “Green Hills of Africa”. Also taken from his experiences of Africa were some of the best stories named as “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.” His other stories, whereas not based as openly on the events of his life, were still of a subject he has taken interest in and was fairly well-informed about. (Reynolds, 2001)
His first novel was titled “No Amount of Analysis can convey the quality of the Sun Also Rises”, and was a gripping story, written in a hard lean and athletic narrative dialect, which at the time made the English literature seems childish. His use of tightly written prose in the novel would make Hemingway famous, as it has become a style that has served as the influence of numerous pulp fiction and crime novels. His growing mastery of the use of narration meant that he could establish the use of a more contemporary style that became evident in his book “The Man and the Sea”.
Many books of Ernest Hemingway have had various meaning and all could be explained in several way, however nothing has been written so much about his other stories never ever. Well the “Old Man and the Sea” had more written and discussed about it when compare to any of his other work and there have been never so many several types of explanation about his other work what has been done in respect of “Old Man and the Sea.” The “Old Man and the Sea” is a novel that can be understood and discussed in number of different ways. Numbers of the critics have the similar viewpoint on the Hemingway’s works. This work of Hemingway can be judged in number of different point of view. All the critics think that Hemingway’s writing style was much defined.
Hemingway believed that he could describe one thing and have another thing occur without the knowledge of the reader. This was well illustrated in his book “The Big Two-Hearted River”, in which Adam is fishing and he does not have to focus or thinks of anything else other than fishing. In this case Adam is oblivious to everything around except for the aspect of fishing. (Fiedler, 1975)
This writing methodology allows the reader to be engrossed in the normal activity of the character, and they are open to shock or surprise of the occurrence of another factor at the same time. Hemingway’s style was very ideal for his genre and it was a methodology that was later applied in horror stories to increase the intense emotion and provide a more gripping reading experience that would captivate the reader (Fiedler, 1975). In Hemingway’s mannerisms of his literature, he revolutionized the aspect of book reading, as it would be reminiscent of the aspect of watching a movie, but through a book.
Hemingway’s writing style was more related to the aspect of his life experiences. In his books, Ernest is focused on asking the question of what if in his literature but entirely bringing out the question in the writing. This involves the reader in establishing personal conclusions that may relate to the literature that they read. In some cases Hemingway does use his personal life as an influence on his writing. In the case of “the Art of a Short Story”, Hemingway uses his personal experience to pose questions to the reader; such as ‘A few things which I found to true, if one leaves out the essential things or events that one may have knowledge of, the story is then strengthened. In the case that one skips or leaves out something they are aware of, the story can become worthless. The test of any story is based on the aspect of how good the things that you or the editor will omit.” (Meyers, 1985)
He also applies methodologies that are evident in movies, in which he cuts from one scene to another; particularly in the case of flashbacks or providing relevant information for a particular scene or situation in his book. In other cases he will fuse to scene together in a manner of smooth transition from one scene to another (Young, 1964). With the use of a cinematic effect on his writing, he can use the aspect of omission as the cinematic feeling will allow the reader to fill in the gaps and result in the collage of images based on the related story or book. (Meyers, 1985)
Upon review of his writings, it can be said that his works, completely, reflect the attitudes and themes of his personal life, and considered to be refusing of society. All of his writings appear that was centered on the psychologically and physically injured Hemingway Hero, exactly showing his personal continuous effort to tackle the world with elegance under pressure (Trogdon, 2003). All of the heroes of Hemingway follow and stick to their personal code, or set of ethical standards. They are typically men, experienced and hard in the world they understand, yet apparently insensitive. Although they may look freezing on the surface, it has been found that the loyalty to a discipline, to a code can be a guide to a compassion that permits the characters to look, at moments, their exact dilemma. Generally at the stress time, it is the hard man, for Ernest, the closely controlled man, who in fact understands tragedy and pathos.” (Trogdon, 2003) For instance in the “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” Harry who meet the above discussed description of the hero of Hemingway, ready to die by lying incapacitated, exposed by a flashbacks series of his personal regrets and imperfections. What he felt on his bed of death is a time of clarity, and is similar to the disciplined man who in a stress situation discovers his personal sensitivity and is capable to observe his true dilemma.
The basic idea in the stories of Hemingway typically considered from one of two categories. At first, the story is about such man who as adopted his disciplines or code already in the world where he cannot survive otherwise. The second category that is more often used is about learning and growth, about finding of the world’s disorder and evils, and about the initiatives taken concerning to the discipline mastery (Trogdon, 2003) and the developing of one’s code. One good illustration of the later would be “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” in which novel a weak pathetic man on safari in Africa practices various rejections and achievements that lead to his appropriate evolution from a standard twit to a man who is disciplined. Still the ultimate hero of Ernest’s stories is Nick Adams’, whose composed stories are completely about just that, the beginning into a spinning world of confusion and evil, and the learning essential to cover with it. Approximately on first 23 Hemingway wrote demonstrate on Nick Adam, or infrequently another young person so akin that they could be individual and the same. As a teenager, the reaction of Nick to the world is something like a shock. He observes the events by standing at the side, additional to taking part in them. Very awful things occur to him as he grows up all through the work of work Hemingway. His real experiences make it possible to the reader to learn about the life, and assist to present the facts we would encounter otherwise in a situation akin to him. (Wagner-Martin, 2000)
If we have a bird eye view on all his works, we can say that Hemingway loves to use different symbols. Typically he used the symbols of sports, games, wars and bullfights to describe his view points on life. Football, baseball, horseracing, fishing and hunting presented him with his permanent and coherent symbols concerning to the expressions. The symbol of violent games presented Hemingway with such structure in which he could cast his artistic – provide again and again, his images of the artist, as a fisherman, hunter, matador, prizefighter, soldier, and gambler.
Ernest alleged that if he can observe himself clear and whole, his imagination might be helpful to other people who also existed in his world. Though, in order to develop those symbols cleanly, he had to focus the whole techniques and approaches of his writings to the natural pattern of his own character. Hemingway was keen to play with words, toy with Hemingway, make savor and puns sounds, state a snappy part of jargon or deal with a rhyme. Words turned to life for Hemingway not only in his conversations, but also on the pages of books. He strived to research out original and new ways of saying things. English was the single subject that never was tough for him. Hemingway took decision that he would write down one story concerning to all things he knew about. He was performing this all the time he was writing and it was and severe discipline he said. (Young, 1964)
The influences that the works of Ernest Hemingway have left upon community are nothing short of amazing. He has revealed the about the harsh realities of life and the significance of managing a code through which to deal and live with those realities. All through his own widespread experiences he has composed these stories of the shady side of life, and of the good quality that can be establish within. His own fight with the intolerant world in which we live, from where his stories were stretched, was destroyed in the year 1961 when he committed suicide. The world will everlastingly bear his mark.
Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist, 7th Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Koch, Stephen. The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles. New York: Counterpoint, 2005.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. Ernest Hemingway’s apprenticeship. Washington: NCR Microcard Editions, 1991.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., and Trogdon, Robert W. The Only Thing That Counts. New York. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1996.
Phillips, Larry W. Ernest Hemingway on Writing, 6th Edition. London: Grafton Books, 1999.
Reynolds, Michael S. Hemingway: an Annotated Chronology. New York: Wiley, 1999.
Reynolds, Michael S. Hemingway: The Final Years. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001.
Trogdon, Robert W. Ernest Hemingway: A Documentary Volume. Michigan: Gale Research Inc, 2003.
Wagner-Martin, Linda. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Young, Philip. (1964). Ernest Hemingway. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota.
Meyers, Jeffrey (1985). Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Macmillan.
Fiedler, Leslie (1975). Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Stein and Day.
Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist, 7th Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. The fascinating and most appealing thing about this work is the reality that it provides forth approximately all of these images of Hemingway and more. This is one of the initial biographies of Hemingway, and it is among the best works. Carlos Baker was a researcher and scholar who was selected by the family of Hemingway to write this biography.
Koch, Stephen. The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles. New York: Counterpoint, 2005. This book is gently written history but it reads like a suspense/mystery novel credit to the gifted storytelling of author Stephen Koch. This book examined the destruction of the friendship among the American writers John Dos Passos and Ernest Hemingway during the Spanish Civil War.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. Ernest Hemingway’s apprenticeship. Washington: NCR Microcard Editions, 1991. In this work Bruccoli discuss on the works of Ernest Hemingway and the author Ernest ranks as the most famous of twentieth-century American writers and most of his works are considered as American masterpiece, and some works afterward have been converted into action pictures.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., and Trogdon, Robert W. The Only Thing That Counts. New York. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1996. In this masterpiece the authors present their personal viewpoints into the editing and writing of Hemingway’s works. The authors stated that Ernest was an unflagging letter writer and as editor the introduction of Bruccoli states Ernest wrote more lines in letters than he wrote for publication, and letter writing turned out as a part of the means of his literary career.
Phillips, Larry W. Ernest Hemingway on Writing, 6th Edition. London: Grafton Books, 1999. This book provides the Ernest’s reflections on the nature of writer and on the elements of the writer’s life, including helpful and particular suggestion to writers on the art of writing, discipline and work habits.
Reynolds, Michael S. Hemingway: an Annotated Chronology. New York: Wiley, 1999. In this work Reynolds has picked several hundred excerpts from the interviews, books, and personal correspondences of Hemingway that are considered the tremendous characteristics of writing.
Reynolds, Michael S. Hemingway: The Final Years. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001. In this master piece Reynolds put insights to final years of Hemingway and the author stated that Hemingway’s triumphs as a writer throughout the mid of 20th century that accompanied a life of risk and danger. Michael Reynolds discovers the truth about Hemingway’s activities during the war years,
Trogdon, Robert W. Ernest Hemingway: A Documentary Volume. Michigan: Gale Research Inc, 2003. In this work Trogdon includes dual chronology and capsule biography presenting significant cultural events as they coincided with the works and life of Ernest, while illustrations and photographs of the period capture the flavor of the milieu and time of Ernest.
Wagner-Martin, Linda. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. This new Historical Guides is a historically and an interdisciplinary sensitive series that pays close attention to the most widely read and studied authors of United States with a strong feeling of place, time, and history.
Young, Philip. Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, 1964. This book provides the admired critical study was labeled as “the best book on Hemingway,” and its significance was considerably improved when Young added critical exchange with Hemingway during the preparation of book and a summary of Hemingway’s final years.
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Macmillan, 1985. Jeffrey Meyers’ eponymous biography of Ernest Hemingway is, as someone has made it, a saltier friend to masterful 1969 perfect authorized biography of Carlos Baker. Meyers is not excessively affectionate of his subject and provides us a different insight of Hemingway.
Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Stein and Day, 1975. Fiedler presents Ernest Hemingway in amazingly muted tones, particularly considering the almost surprising incidents to which Hemingway could lead himself. This is a very knowledgeable and workmanlike work,
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