Florida Weather and It’s Effects, Research Paper Example
Words: 2718Research Paper
Florida’s weather and climatic conditions are always varying, and that has attracted policymakers into the matter. The majority of the impact is blamed upon increased artificial activities that emit carbon dioxide into the air. Florida is experiencing floods attributed to high sea levels and undergoes a whole lot of hurricanes throughout the year. That has made Florida to be branded with the name “ground zero,” meaning that in case of a nuclear explosion, the region is quite susceptible and close to a detonation and would suffer heavily. Many of the people are largely located along the low-elevation ocean regions. Therefore, that has prompted some groups to start implementing climate mitigation strategies even though national wide campaigns and crusades to help solve the matter have been hampered by the politicization of the matter in the US.
In this case, the political arena has focused on resilience instead of finding out adaptation and solution plans. For example, according to Borisova, Tatiana, Norman Breuer, and Roy Carriker (2009), Governor Charles proposed an 80% reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases by the year 2050 in 2007. The following year, he organized a Climate Change Summit in Florida. However, even though there are potential efforts to arrive at solutions, there is a lot of skepticism among the main decision-makers and the community on the impact of man’s activities on the climate. For instance, a group alleges that carbon emissions seem will be more expensive than the relative benefits and human activities on climate. Therefore, this paper analyzes and supports the debate that climatic changes have adverse impacts by looking at the Florida hurricanes and fields like tourism, transport, forestry, electricity, real estate, ecosystem and agriculture.
Economic Impacts of Climatic Changes
Many studies have been formulated concerning the heavy burden posed by climatic changes and the eventual mitigation solutions. The estimations have presented huge diversities in the assumptions made and the definition of economic changes. In my opinion, climatic variations in Florida are quite disastrous, and the reasoning will be influenced by a wide range of factors, as highlighted. The economics will mainly base on the predictions of both the current and future emissions, climatic policies developed to solve the issues, the impact of technology on climatic change, the level of inclusion of the environmental effects and the complementary choices in cases where the energy costs are high (Stanton, Elizabeth, & Frank, 36). After determining the economic impacts inherent through the measurement of GDP and consumption values, it is therefore discovered that the effects are quite crude to the economy in many ways.
The Effect of Hurricanes
According to Stanton and Ackerman (2007), the yearly-average effect for a hurricane amounts to a total of around $3.5 Billion and an average of eight mortalities. The numbers are mainly varied based upon rapid stabilization and business activities on the grounds of some assumptions. First, initial studies had indicated that the disastrous effects associated with hurricanes are recorded with relative proportion to the Gross Domestic Product. In this logic, hurricanes are treated as proportionately equal to the whole population. Subsequently, another study assumed that a one-meter rise in sea levels compounds double damages by hurricanes. Lastly, several calculations indicate that an increase in carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere amounts to an equal amount of damage from hurricanes. Therefore, a projection of all those impacts means that Florida would suffer a whopping $24 billion by the year 2050 and eventual eighteen deaths in their bid to stabilize and $ 50 billion and 38 deaths in terms of business (Borisova, Tatiana, Norman, and Roy r. Par.19-20). Other studies employed different techniques to calculate and forecast hurricane damages in terms of the mean of years between their occurrences. The return period is based on the low and high-end ocean level rises.
In both cases, there is a reduction in the return period of hurricanes. Unfortunately, that means that those hurricanes are more prevalent. For example, a 12-inch sea-level rise or 7 feet storm effect is likely to happen after 20 years in every 75 years a per the latest pattern. Consequently, the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation evaluated the damage caused by a series of eight hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. Even though the studies did not include the variations in population and infrastructure, the hurricanes proved to have negative effects. Therefore, climatic changes in the state of Florida have future adverse effects that require immediate intervention.
Impact on Real Estate
Various studies have observed that the effects of climatic changes on real estate in Florida are based on the following assumptions. First, the real estate value will increase everywhere significantly and equally to the GDP, and that the average of residential property at risk is equal to the size of the seal level rises. In this case, in 2017, it was estimated that the forecast made indicate that by the year 2100, among eight homesteads, one of them would be covered by water based on the Zillow database of homes (Borisova, Tatiana, Norman, & Roy, par. 21-22). That shows the risk of climatic changes on flooding and therefore calls for immediate intervention. Further reports in 2018 revealed that Florida state is the most susceptible and stays at high risk and uncertainty, with almost one million homes being on the verge of facing the negative impacts of climatic changes. Subsequently, it would take about $75 million to save up to a three-kilometer road having some residential properties, and that would have also seen the total disappearance of some islands. For example, the southern regions of Florida suffer the impacts of climatic change because of continuous fraudulent non-disclosure of the risks posed by floods to the built environment.
Effects on Electricity
The dwellers of sunbelt regions like Florida with high and dangerous heat waves rely on on-air conditioners for comfortability and living healthy and secure when the conditions are quite difficult. For example, in 2019, almost thirty individuals succumbed to death due to issues related to heat. Subsequently, the cases are expected to rise and mostly affect the old and those vulnerable in society like the sick and the poor. A quarter of the energy generated is used for air conditioning, more than three times the average nationally. Therefore, it has been estimated that payments Floridians are supposed to make for air conditioning will supposedly rise as they are currently incurring 12 % more than the total average electricity in the United States of America. According to Hsiang, Solomon et al. (2021) in the journal Estimating Economic Damage from Climate Change In The United States. The lack of possible mitigation and adaptation strategies would raise the payments to 6 % annually as charges for electricity. Therefore, ensuring that homes have cool conditions will mostly affect the low-income homesteads who will spend much of their money on electricity bills ranging up to 10%, which is two times more than the expenditure of the others. Therefore, the additional pay for electricity in Florida could amount to $120 million. Additionally, any increase in the population of Florida would mean that there is a subsequent rise in the electricity demand, and eventually, the cost also rises (Palm, Risa, &Toby, 81-92). Businesses would also require enough money to spend on warming their premises. The state would need to develop natural gas, oil plants, and coal plants every year in such a case.
Impact on the Tourism
Florida suffers from spending almost $ 200 million yearly to protect beaches and restore them to their original conditions after every climatic issue. They do so simply because beaches are valuable to the tourism sector and act as a significant recreational asset. Adverse climatic changes risk destroying the beaches in Florida because of erosion and destroying the islands along with the coastal parts. Such occurrences are attributed to the rising rides and storm upsurges. Subsequently, the erosion of beaches is a causative agent to the destruction of the built environment, including residential properties and risks the survival degree of properties near the beaches. In 2002, about half of Florida beaches got eroded, leading to harmful effects. Studies indicate that Florida’s beaches contributed to almost 40% of domestic and international tourists visiting the place, with 90 % coming from other parts of the country. Tourists contribute approximately 4% of Florida’s GDP as the costs charged when they visit the places. Apart from creating more jobs yearly, the beaches also contribute to revenues for state development and stability. Therefore, the destruction of the beaches amounts to heavy losses to the tourism industry, which is a key contributor to expenditure because visitors to Florida are always determined by the weather and climatic changes (Atzori, Roberta, Alan, and Graham, 12-20). Harsh climatic changes will always reduce the tourism and recreational activities and therefore contribute to a significant loss in the Gross State Product.
Effects on the Ecosystem and Natural Environment
Climatic changes have significant impacts on both the economy and the environment of Florida. In 2011 alone, individuals from outside Florida went for about 20 million trips fishing marine life in Florida. For example, the ever-increasing temperatures and acidification in the sea affect marine life due to high levels of heat and harmful gasses absorbed from the air. When water is hot and then added to mineral fertilization in the Atlantic Ocean, then several animals and plants in the water bodies are killed. That could go as far as the outbreak of Vibro-related diseases due to consumption of poisonous and contaminated marine life like fish (Repetto, 10). For instance, the have seen people continue to suffer from those diseases due to increased contamination of the ocean. Furthermore, relatively warm and acidified water harms the corals in the Florida waters, a key attraction of tourists and a home for marine life. Besides, gasses emitted into the air contaminate the waters and affect planktons and other animals, which are key components of a food chain and important water resources like lobsters. In this case, tourists are no longer attracted, and this affects the economy of Florida.
Impacts on Forestry, Agriculture and the Transport Sector
Climatic changes in Florida have some impacts on other sectors, as mentioned above. Even though the warm climate reduces freezing which significantly promotes agriculture, crop survival and production are hindered as the temperatures continue to rise. For example, the production of Citrus fruits has suffered because of the regions being hotter, which affects the dormant growth of those plants, stages that ensure good yields. For example, 86 Fahrenheit is the optimum temperature for citrus and tomatoes to grow. However, a slight movement from the optimal level reduces the production expectations. Additionally, insect and weed migration, storm surge,s and flooding affect the agricultural sector (Herman et al., 451-459). A warm and dry environment increases the need for water, and as people compete for this resource, it eventually becomes limited hence affecting the agricultural sector. Forestry will also be affected since the distribution of tree species will vary because of the temperatures. In this case, low soil moisture and evapotranspiration because of the hot weather will affect both animal and plant species. Additionally, the coastal parts with forests and mangroves will also suffer harmful effects related to such conditions. Fishing will also be affected in that hurricanes will affect estuaries and therefore destroy those nurseries meant for water body animals. Finally, climatic variations will impact the transport sector (Obeysekera, Jayantha, et al., 495-501). For instance, when storm upsurges and hurricanes strike, ports, railway stations and rod-ways are always on the verge of suffering the most. Developed waterways that support marine transport are affected by hot and dry weather because of the increased demand for water, leading to scarcity. Thermal and desalination water processes are expensive because of the electricity, and therefore, the costs of water will be high.
Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanisms
However, the effects of climatic changes won’t be that destructive and unwanted if the state institutions, government and other policymakers formulate strategies necessary to mitigate and adapt the problem. Therefore, all the leaders have compelling reasons to come out and find possible solutions that would help in the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the environment that eventually causes the effects related to global warming. Several measures can be put in place to stop the menace posed by climatic changes in Florida state. First, activists should come out clearly and formulate policies both at the national and federal level that would ensure that measures are taken to conserve the environment become a reality and not a dream. For example, the Dade County Climate Programs should be empowered and developed fully to protect water supply and protection as the key priorities. Additionally, the Integrative Collaborative Climate and Energy (ICCE) program was developed to strengthen matters on issues regarding climatic adaptation in all the areas of Florida state (Carlton, Stuart & Susan, 32-39). Therefore, formulation of the right measures on developing climatic resilience, emission of clean gases into the air, and proper mitigation and adaptation strategies is a key mission in creating a safe and secure environment.
Conclusively, the Florida state has experienced climatic and weather variations for some time now. Intense precipitation rates, frequent hurricanes, and rising sea levels always cause natural disasters, which affect the economy of the state and the livelihoods of its dwellers. The varying climatic and weather changes pose unwanted effects on the general pollution of Florida in many ways. For example, hurricanes and rising sea levels destroy the beaches, which is an important tourist attraction making the state lose revenue sources. Additionally, the high temperatures in Florida mean that people are highly dependent on air conditioners which require a lot of electricity and therefore more money funded towards the same. Hurricanes and other unwanted climatic changes often leave many people homeless and destroy the built environment, leading to huge property losses. However, finding out the best strategies to mitigate and overcome the climatic variations needs a balance between the costs applied and the final benefits while preventing damages. Even though the costs are important, the overall beneficial capacities are different according to various researches. For example, Stanton and Ackerman (2007) made two economic studies on the effects of weather change on Florida based on various techniques.
From the studies, the general economic impact of mitigating climate change is important based on the yearly losses recorded in various industries like real estate, transport, and high electricity generation costs that would lead to an accumulated value of about $345 billion at the end of 100 years. Additionally, a rise in sea levels risks damaging property worth millions and subsequent issues associated with storm surges. Therefore, it is right to conclude that climatic changes affect agriculture, energy and transport, and important infrastructures and ecosystems like water bodies and forests. Therefore, the uneven distribution of the economic effects in the state contributes to damages that outweigh the overall impacts to various fields involved in the business. In this case, the public sector suffers strenuously in terms of budgeting for the infrastructural maintenance marred with heavy losses, which result in the eventual loss of taxes. Therefore, it is an issue that requires intervention from policymakers and institutions in Florida and a global approach from the international society like the United Nations to help mitigate the issue.
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Borisova, Tatiana, Norman Breuer, and Roy Carriker. “Economic impacts of climate change on Florida: Estimates from two studies.” EDIS 2009.1 (2009).
Borisova, Tatiana, Norman Breuer, and Roy Carriker. “Economic impacts of climate change on Florida: Estimates from two studies.” EDIS 2009.1 (2009).
Carlton, Stuart J., and Susan K. Jacobson. “Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.” Journal of environmental management 130 (2013): 32-39.
Herman, Benjamin C., Allan Feldman, and Vanessa Vernaza-Hernandez. “Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers’ knowledge and teaching of climate change science.” International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 15.3 (2017): 451-471.
Hsiang, Solomon et al. Estimating Economic Damage From Climate Change In The United States. 2021
Obeysekera, Jayantha, et al. “Climate change and its implications for water resources management in south Florida.” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 25.4 (2011): 495-516.
Palm, Risa, and Toby Bolsen. “Results from South Florida experiment.” Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in South Florida. Springer, Cham, 2020. 81-92.
Repetto, Robert. “Economic and environmental impacts of climate change in Florida.” Demos, New York (2012): 10.
Stanton, Elizabeth A., and Frank Ackerman. “Florida and climate change: the costs of inaction.” Florida and climate change: the costs of inaction. (2007).
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