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Geoparks–Learnings From Australia, Research Paper Example

Pages: 22

Words: 6119

Research Paper

Introduction

Geotourism refers to tourism enhancing and sustaining the geographic traits of region, place, cultures, heritage, environment, aesthetics, and health of the area’s residents. According to Briggs et al. (2021), geotourism entails a wide range of travel such as the history of the place, food, nature, water, music, culture, heritage, and arts. These scholars further explained that geotourism involves more than just a mere drive-through travel in an area of the region. Zeroing in on the importance of “place” refers to the local area becoming a complete accomplice in giving the visitors an authentic,enhancing experience. The idea of Geotourism underlines local culture, items, customs, and tradition and offers visitorsvarious chances to explore a region’s natural beauty and human community. Geotourism safeguards community resourcesthat frequently have been harmed and damaged by well-meaning guests or visitors both from local and national through stewardship that keeps development to sustainable levels and guides it to local attractions notwithstanding notable attractions in the region. Farsani et al. (2017) noted that negative consequences, for example, congestion and contamination, are decreased due to this obligation to distribute the travel industry ‘past the guidebook.’ Geotourism benefits local people by advancing local administrations and resources while answering visitors’ necessities by teaching occupants and showing them the genuine worth of their hometown.

There have been conflicts over the terminology of geoparks. Geoparks was not an original choice but rather a reserve. The term was changed following the decision by UNESCO Earth Sciences Division in 1997. The members think the terminology ‘park’ confuses the public with layers of land. Few people know of the existence of geoparks (Briggs et al., 2021). The awareness to change the terminology has continued to promote the geopark concept. The term has been removed in some countries to reduce the stigma linked to the term. The term has been placed to work until the geoparks are incorporated by governments. Geoparks have existed for many years, and there have been several developments in their creations. The first stage was from 1996 to 2004, where there was an attempt to incorporate them into the UNESCO sector in World heritage and man and the biosphere. Then from 2004 to 2019, there existed the creation of geoparks in Asia and Europe. The third development was from 2011 to 2015, when UNESCO, after acquiring the GGN name, decided to work towards an equitable distribution of geoparks globally. (Du & Girault, 2018). Despite the man and biosphere and world heritage programs for over fifty years, the geopark concept is only five years into existence in UNESCO programs. After its incorporation into the sector globally, the number of geoparks has increased. Spain has many rural areas that demonstrate the effectiveness of geoparks in the region (Du & Gurault, 2018). It also has a decentralized government that offers massive power to local governments, strengthening Spain’s geoparks establishment and development. An evaluation of Spanish geoparks shows that the creation has led to acceptance over the past twenty gears. It also has diversity and richness in ecology, leading to a high tourist attraction with over eighty-three million tourists yearly.

Farsani et al. (2017) describe geoparks as central areas in landscape and geological characteristics with international importance and are managed with a primary concentration on sustainable development, education, eradication of poverty, and conservation (UNESCO, 2016). The main driver of geoparks is geotourism. The idea of geoparks was incorporated to preserve geological sites in Spain and Europe and has evolved. Geoparks naturally adopt a holistic framework for their goals. They have shown higher growth and development rates to boost community growth in rural areas, creating employment for the community, building businesses, and creating revenue. Spain, for example, has adopted rural overfit reduction programs to bring more development to the rural areas. The geoparks in rural areas of Spain and Europe have been used as a fork of seasonal employment to serve the visitors and tourists.

Farsani et al. (2017), in their study, noted that since the Four Corners landscape is significant and prestigious throughout the world, the principles of Geotourism offer extraordinary opportunities for meaningful trade among inhabitants and tourists. Its core value is to enhance respect for the local people and their cultures while providing visitors with a more prosperous and profound experience that suits the region. More importantly, geotourism has many socio-economic implications, especially concerning Geoparks. Briggs et al. (2021) noted that one thing that makes geoparks different from mere tourism or world heritage sites is that they have more robust commitments to bring direct benefits to the local communities, economy, and the future of the entire region and site. Therefore, one of the socio-economic benefits of geotourism is that it promotes sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism is similar to the physicians’ set of principles that signifies and ensures that there is no damage to the environment. According to Briggs et al. (2021), geopark promotes sustainable tourism that protects the most crucial resource since it prevents the death and destruction of natural resources, cultures, heritage sites, and even the environment; limiting management techniques may promote the extinction of geopark resources and elements. Again, another geopark’s socio-economic implication is that it promotes the conservation of resources. Briggs et al. (2021) noted that geopark consists of individuals who are environmentally conscious tourists and travelers concerned more about the reduction of wastes, pollution, water usage, energy consumption, excessive lighting, and landscaping chemicals.

Another critical activity that promotes socio-economic incentives for rural areas from geoparks is the increased establishment of hotels, numbers of accommodations, and restaurants. Local entrepreneurs establish hotels and restaurants in the geoparks because of the tourist attractions. Through the hotels and restaurants, the locals can create employment for the people from the community. In addition, the more the number of geotourists increases, the higher the income and GDP of the local areas. According to Farsani et al. (2017), the local purchasing powers tend to increase as geotourists increase in a given place because the locals are forced to invent ways to enhance the tourists’ experiences by building accommodation, hotels, and other essential amenities. In return, the local economic status also improves, bringing development to the entire region. Most of the economic activities carried out by geoparks to rural areas promote local development, acquire international visibility, and create awareness of geoheritage in Spain. The geoparks help the rural communities to motivate their geo products (Farsani et al., 2017). They promote local geo-products. The creation of geofoods is an innovative measure used by most geoparks, restaurants, and hotels to earn income and revenue. Some of the geological characteristics inspire the creation of geofoods like the Pedras Parideiras cake found in Portugal at the Arouca Geopark, the ammonite chocolate d bread found in France at the Haute-Provence Geopark, the Trilobite cake, marble cake, and Boulder soup in Portugal at the Naturtejo da Meseta Meridional Geopark.

Lane (1994) classifies geotourism as rural tourism in the country areas. The population density s limited to one hundred and fifty people per square kilometer (Hall & Piggin, 2001). The rural settlements are comparatively small and have ten thousand people or less. Lane (1994) further indicates that rural tourism is limited to small-scale businesses that involve locally owned businesses or outdoor tasks the tourism thrives from cultural, natural, and landscape aspects. He further indicates that rural tourism occurs in the countryside and involves the geomorphological and geological landscapes such Maestrazgo. Cabo de Gata-Níjar. The geosites, geobrands, approaches, and innovations motivate local businesses and accrue income for the local members. European Geoparks Networks is a major development or exchanging knowledge and geotourism and promoting awareness for geological heritages and attaining sustainable development in rural areas as per Henriques & Brilha (2017).

Studies by Murdoch (2000) indicated that networking in rural areas helped in rural development by connecting the development problems to the external opportunities in the region. However, Sagala et al. (2018) argued that despite the networking tactics being successful, it only acted as a medium of exchange in knowledge while the small and medium-sized enterprises helped develop the economy (Orús & Urquí, 2020). Small businesses can create innovative opportunities for rural areas in a competitive environment. The European pilot project on six different dates in Sweden, Scotland, Norway, Italy, Ireland, and Finland showed that integrating the networks can benefit (Lee et al. (2005).

Geoparks sites promote the rural areas from the geo-products that are produced, such as cultural handicrafts, the heritage, and geo-foods. Most of the hotels and local businesses in the rural areas of Spain and Europe are locally owned and operated by the local people. Most employees in the establishments are local people (Neto de Carvallo & Rodrigues, 2020). These business persons make arrangements with the local tourism centers, such as vocational training centers and institutions, on employment jobs for the rural human resources majority of workers in major restaurants and hotels originate from the rural sectors of Spain and Europe in the Geoparks. Street vendors occupy most geoparks, such as Origens in Spain in Linda in Catalonia. Geoparks motivate the niche of geotourism via several aspects, geoparks using local festivals, national celebrations, and local products incorporates the promotion of cultural agritourism, heritage, and sustainability (Lee & Jayakumar, 2021).

Another economic activity for the geoparks in rural areas is the recreational sites for visitors and locals that include a variety of wonderful tasks such as, bird watching, camping, cycling, climbing, or hiking (Gates, 2012). The geoeducational and conservational tasks in the geoparks like the formation of educational programs, visitation centers, museum foundations, creation of geotrails, and geosites form job opportunities it the locals (Nikolava & Sinnyyovsky, 2019). The increase in job opportunities provides an income from the economic tasks that encourage the rural sectors and secures the geological heritage. Justice (2018) indicated that over seventy percent of the geoparks reported competition with stakeholders due to scarcity in financial aid from the private, state, and federal sectors; despite most of the geoparks being headed by communities, financial aid is required to meet reporting, marketing, development, and planning needs (Farsani et al., 2011). Therefore, there appears to be a perceived conflict over financial resources. Governments fund national parks in the states. Reports indicate that the future of geoparks funding lies in grants, philanthropists, and businesses. There have been perceptions that the UNESCO global geoparks might concentrate on conservation (Sagala et al. 2018).

 The European Geoparks Networks, which collaborates with UNESCO, works together to ensure limits to agricultural development and ecological growth (Palmer et al.,2020). However, some small community groups fear that the sector might liaise with lobbies to vie for conservation measures in geoparks. Products and souvenirs that are sold are grown, produced and sold from the local area and this further empower the rural areas. from outside the rural areas. Regulations can help boost the economic incentives for the rural communities, such as training people using guidelines of the geopark to activate their roles in the economic stipulation and attracting tourists (Van Geert, 2019). The overlapping authorities in the government sectors in the conservative are management is another problem. Therefore, there is a need to collaborate the responsibilities of district, provincial, local and central agencies to boost support and allocation of resources and grants. The benefits of geoparks are not felt by the rural areas, hence the need to create geoparks institutions and management bodies (Romeiro & Costa 2010). The European Geopark network created two institutions to benchmark the regions in Europe and Spain (Van Geert, 2019).

Conceptual framework

Characteristics to be met by geopark to be chosen by UNESCO

The first feature that must be met by a place or region to be considered by UNESCO as a geopark is that territory must have a geological heritage of international values. Briggs, Dowling & Newsome (2021) explain that in order for the for the region to be classified as geopark, the geology of the place must be the subject to studies or research at both the national and international level and it has must have various scientific and academic publications in the pasts (Du & Girault, 2018). These scholars further noted that even though there is always no international procedures or methodology concerning heritage inventory, the UNESCO global geospark must use existing national inventories collected from geological surveys and researches in the nations or regions they exist. On the same note, UNESCO global geoparks must involve indigenous and local people, celebrating and preserving their cultures. By including locals and natives, UNESCO perceive the significance of these geoparks, people’s cultures and the connection between communities and their territory. It the models of UNESCO that locals and native information, practice and the executives’ frameworks, close by science, are included for the preparation and the board of the region.

Another consideration is that the geopark must be have geoconservation. UNESCO Global Geoparks are regions that utilizes the idea of sustainability, esteem the legacy of Mother Earth and perceive the need to safeguard it. The characterizing topographical destinations in UNESCO Global Geoparks are safeguarded by native, local or potentially public regulation and the management specialists, in collaboration with the proper organizations, which consider the vital observing and support of these destinations (Piranha et al., 2011). Suitable security is based on the given management plans of individual site (Palmer et al.,2020). The administration body of an UNESCO Global Geopark will not partake straightforwardly in sales of various geological objects or items, for example, fossils, minerals, and other kinds of rocks found in “rock-shops” inside the area, and many effectively discourage such trades. These resources do not refer to material for typical industrial and family purpose especially those obtained by quarrying but their availability and collection are dependent upon guideline under public and additionally worldwide regulation.

In specific situations and where clearly legitimized as a responsible movement the administration body might allow maintainable gathering of land materials for logical and instructive purposes from normally sustainable locales inside the UNESCO Global Geopark. Exchange of land materials as per public regulation on Earth legacy preservation in light of such a framework might be endured in outstanding conditions, if it is obviously and freely made sense of, legitimized and observed as the most ideal choice for the UNESCO Global Geopark corresponding to nearby conditions (Orús & Urquí 2020). Such conditions will be likely to discussion and endorsement dependent upon the situation.

According to UNESCO, the geospark must promote sustainable development. Regardless of whether a region has a remarkable, widely popular geographical heritage of extraordinary universal values it cannot be an UNESCO Global Geopark except if the region also has an arrangement for the economic sustainability of individuals who live there (Nikolova & Sinnyovsky, 2019). This might appear as sustainable tourism, for instance, the improvement of strolling or cycling trails, preparing of nearby individuals to go about as guides, empowering the travel industry. Furthermore, convenience suppliers to follow global best practice in natural maintainability (Newsome & Dowling 2010). Yet, it can also be about just captivating with local individuals and regarding their customary lifestyle such that engages them and regards their common freedoms and dignity. Except if an UNESCO Global Geopark has the help of local individuals it would not succeed (Neto de Carvallo & Rodrigues, 2020). UNESCO Global Geopark status does not suggest limitations on any monetary movement inside an UNESCO Global Geopark where that action consents to native, neighborhood, local or potentially public regulation.

UNESCO Global Geoparks must be a natural resource and inform individuals about the manageable use these resources, in advancing appreciation for the environment and the dignity of the local community. Starting from the beginning of mankind natural resources given by the Earth’s have been the source of living for human, plants and animals. Thus, it is very important for the geoparks to ensure that the (Lee & Jayakumar,2021). Some of the natural resources like air, minerals, water, hydrocarbons, interesting earth components, geothermal energy, and their practical use is essential for what was in store all around was of society. Any component from the earth has its starting point in geography and land processes, is non-sustainable and its abuse must be dealt with carefully (Lonardi, Martini & Hull 2020).

Geopark

Geopark refers to a unified location that promote protection of and utilization of geographical heritage in a more sustainable manner and advances the economic well-being of the local people living around the place. Farsani et al. (2013) in their study established that mots geoparks helps in promoting awareness of geological hazards such as tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes. These scholars went further to explain that many geoparks help and used in the preparations of disaster mitigations strategies with the local people. Geoparks exemplify records of past environment changes and are marks of current environment changes as well as showing a “best practice” methods and ways to deal with the utilizations of sustainable energy and the use of the best norms of “green tourism”. The travel industry advancement in geoparks, as a geologically feasible and pertinent the tourism model, expects to maintain, and even improve, the geological traits of a region.

Farsani et al. (2017) further noted that geoparks also informs about the reasonable utilization of the environment and natural resources. They should be used to simultaneously advance sustainable environment and preservation of the natural habitats. Geoparks are not an official designation, however they are vital heritage site inside a geopark are much of the time safeguarded under local communities, territorial or public regulation (Fassoulas & Zouros, 2010). The multidisciplinary concept of the idea of geopark and the travel industry advancement in geoparks separates itself from different models of feasible sustainable tourism.

The key factor that underlines the creation of a geopark is that ability to have geological heritage of global importance (Labadi, 2013). The geoparks utilizes heritage to promote awareness of various factors that are facing the society and its people in the context of dynamic planet. In other words, geoparks must have an outstanding geological heritage and are used to promote and support sustainable development of environment and this is attained through nature-based tourism, conservations, interpretations and educations.

Type of tourists that visits a Geopark

According to Garofano & Govoni (2012), the cultural tourists are the most and frequent visitors to geoparks. These are the kind of tourists who visits a place in search of cultural meaning of a place, studying tours, traveling to experience cultural festivals and performance of arts. Another type of tourists that visits geopark are the ecotourists. Ecotourists are the kind of tourists that engage in responsible travel especially to natural places and are in most of the time involves in the conservation of the environment as well as improve the well-being of the natives or local community. Goodwin (2011) explains that one of the purposes of the ecotourism is to educate the locals and other travelers to engage in ecological conservation by providing fund to be used in conserving the region and also directly engage empowering the local communities and fostering respect for various cultures in the region (Härtling, 2010). On the same note, historical tourists are another type of tourists that visits Geoparks. They are the tourists that travel with the aim of experiencing a given place or region, activities and even artifacts that directly authenticate and represent the past, present and stories of certain group of people. These kind of tourists visits cultural, natural and historical resources to experience the heritage of a place. Rural tourists are also the type of tourists that visit most of the Geopark (Henriques & Brilha, 2017). Rural tourists are the tourists that visit a place with the intentions of experiencing a wide of products that are connected to different nature-based activities such as sightseeing, rural lifestyles, agricultural, angling and even cultural differences. Other types of tourists that visit geopark are culinary tourism and adventure tourism.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPANISH GEOPARKS

  • Cabo de Gata-Níjar geopark, Almería

Cape Gata is situated in the south-eastern at the furthest end of the territory of Almería. Its shore is set apart by cliffs, bays and sea shores. This region, was proclaimed as a Biosphere Reserve back in 1997. It incorporates the Cape Gata-Níjar Nature Park, and portion of its environmental surroundings. This geopark is formed as a result of volcanic eruptions and its alleviation is portrayed by sharp places of rock, dykes, vaults and dykes. This specific geologic development has brought about the most dazzling beach front landscape in the Spanish Mediterranean. The summer spring is unique, which is the point at which various species show up, for example, flamingoes, swimming birds, and seagulls. Shrubberies and herbaceous plants structure the local community with numerous native species among them. Concerning the ocean bed, this geopark habitats aquatic species such as the enormous the cardinal and comber fish.

Cabo de Gata-Níjar geopark, Almería has a unique feature since it is among one of the places on earth never experience winter, and it is marked with a shore of rough precipices and hidden bays and caves. An individual can explore it on off-road vehicles, riding a horse, or climbing (Spain.info, 2022). The unmistakable waterfront waters uncover an ocean bed wealthy in untamed life and volcanic developments which can undoubtedly be delighted in close up with swimming and scuba jumping accessible for all levels on the Isleta del Moro (Spain.info, 2022). It is even more interesting if a person gets an opportunity, to explore the region with a boat visit along the coast and find secret bays and caves.

  • Subbeticas Geopark, in Cordoba

Subbeticas Geopark, in Cordoba is situated between Guadajoz and Genil. It is made up of various mountain ranges that lie parallel to each other between the streaming waterways of Genil and Guadajoz. The predominant vegetation in the recreation area is Mediterranean and gives a brilliant contribution of types of birds of prey. It is easier to track down the golden hawk, sparrowhawk, the griffon vulture Bonelli’s bird, Egyptian vulture, chough, peregrine bird of prey, and goshawk (Spain.info, 2022). Other birds that can been found in this area are the hoopoe and white stork. The most dominant and common type of reptiles in this region is the long-tailed reptile. In this place it is easier to find the mountain goat and the vole of Cabrera as they roam the region given it shrubby features. Two vegetation types overwhelm the Park, the holm oak, Mediterranean, kermes oak, strawberry tee, and the wild olive tree (Spain.info, 2022). Moreover, riverside vegetations such as alder trees and will are very common in the region.

Water in this region comes from streams, rivers and springs. According to Justice (2018), water from the rivers and springs is the component that has a changed this area, carving whimsical shapes into the limestone (Spain.info, 2022). This is a place that is known for olive trees and little towns of whitewashed houses nestling among the mountains, as Doña Mencía and Luque (Spain.info, 2022) . This region is great for exploring by bike because of it has different routes that one can use to move from one point to another including the Olive Oil Train Greenway.

  • Villuercas-Ibores-Jara Geopark, Cáceres

This region is situated in the south of Cáceres found within the basins of the Tajo and Guadiana streams. More specifically, it lies between parallel valleys and mountains. Its highest point is Risco de La Villuerca which measures 1,601m (Spain.info, 2022). From its peak, different vistors can be able to locate and can see sublime views of the mountains, valleys, Raña qualities which is its main scrubland. From this place it is also possible to see the city of Guadalupe together with its Royal Monastery (Spain.info, 2022) . Its natural value is uncommon since act as a home to over 40 geological and heritage site that stand apart for their paleontological riches. Its past experience and history of housing numerous natural monuments, for example, the Cueva de Castañar de Ibor cave, an underground peculiarity with various shapes and varieties have made it more attractive and unique compared most of the geospark in this country(Spain.info, 2022). Another key feature of this place is ability and easiness to find fossils that lived in the ocean which covered this region a long time ago. Visitor are also able to see rock compositions like those at the Cueva Chiquita and Cueva de Álvarez caves (Spain.info, 2022). They can further visit old mines like the one at Costanaza (in Logrosán). In addition, they further experience a timberland of goliath chestnut trees.

Villuercas-Ibores-Jara Geopark was formed in Pangaea many years ago. The most noteworthy point of this Geospark is the edge of La Villuerca, which reveals more of its details and characteristics, a landscpae of mountain reaches, valleys and slopes. This geopark is also made up of thick oak and chestnut forest with fauna including the brilliant bird, peregrine hawk, griffon vulture and falcon basin (Spain.info, 2022). Its places of topographical interest incorporate Estrecho de la Peña Amarilla, a crevasse made by water disintegration where visitors can swim on when the weather conditions are warm. Again, this region has a unique place consisting of the blockfields of Peraleda de San Román (Spain.info, 2022). In other words, the place is considered as an area of adjusted and mushroom-molded rock arrangements, particularly the tremendous stones of Cancho del Castillo.

Conca de Tremp-Montsec Geopark, in Lleida (Catalonia)

Conca de Tremp-Montsec is an UNESCO Geopark that was declared as geopark back in 2018. Its stones recount the narrative of north of many years of history. It is believed by the local community that the region was covered by the ocean, and was later occupied by dinosaurs, and currently, it provides an abundance of completely flawless landscapes. Its most attractive spots incorporate the Mont Rebei gorge, where a stunning way has been cut into the stone, up to 500 meters over the stream. Its most popular course is the Ruta del Quinto Lago, extending towards the captivating archaic towns like, Beranui.

Results and discussion

Geoparks are central areas in landscape and geological characteristics with international importance and are managed with a main concentration on sustainable development, education, eradication of poverty, and conservation (UNESCO, 2016). The main driver of geoparks is geotourism. The idea of geoparks was incorporated to preserve geological sites in Spain and Europe and has evolved. Geoparks naturally adopt a holistic framework for their goals. They have shown higher growth and development rates to boost community growth by creating job opportunities for the community, building businesses, and creating revenue. Spain, for example, has adopted rural overfit reduction programs to bring more development in the rural areas. The geoparks in rural areas of Spain and Europe have been used as a fork of seasonal employment to serve the visitors and tourists.

There are a lot of significance of geoparks in integrating locals in management and motivation of local businesses such as sales of local products and geotourism. Geoparks are areas with significant ecological features that need to be protected or used for tourism, scientific and educational purposes. These geoparks create many opportunities for rural communities and for local economic growth. It can be noted that compared to regional, natural and national parks, geoparks have a high rate of connections with the local cultural and social life. Since the geoparks are located in local areas, geotourism is a perfect opportunity for rural growth. Therefore, most local authorities have taken advantage of policies to encourage local participation in tasks that help in local economic prosperity and the protection of natural resources. Local authorities have involved the local members in making policies and preserving the land and its resources through programs and laws that regulate minorities from exclusion and local businesses from monopoly.

It is also true that geoparks help to connect the local communities to outside world and bring continuous development to the people. For example, it can be noted that the Courel Mountains Geopark, in Lugo (Galicia) and Granada Geopark, in Andalusia have a high participation rate in geotourism marketing and economic development. The results support the growing future of geoparks and geotourism destinations; local and national networks, on the other hand, can create opportunities for sharing knowledge and information and motivate the private and local sections to incorporate geopark tasks. Despite the businesses in the rural areas like family enterprises integrating into innovative businesses, they can provide opportunities for geoparks to be innovative. An example is if a local vendor joins a geopark’s local network in an open economy paradigm in its most basic form, they can benefit from the authority recommendations and be innovative. They can use the geoparks brands to produce local products connected to geoparks tasks and introduce their brands in geoparks markets at international and national levels. In addition, geoparks can incorporate umbrella networks in local businesses to accrue more profits and be stronger.

Even though geoparks have many significances to the local people, rural communities still require capacity that involves expertise, resources, and staffing, to apply for resources, build, design, and operate infrastructure in long-term projects and fulfill the reporting needs. Since many rural communities lack the tax-funded staff required to apply for governmental programs, they need infrastructural investments in the rural areas. The rural capacity index has ten variables that work as substitutions for community capacity. They involve socio-economic trends, engagement, and education in the local community and staffing. Most rural areas have limited capacity and are prone to climate-changes, mismanagement if the resources, community stability, and livelihoods. Therefore, the rural capacity index can be used to advocate for resources by rural areas in improving geotourism through geoparks.

Therefore, the state agencies can use it to invest in the communities by focusing on investments such as climate, education, and internet access. Tourism, recreation, and transportation. The need for a capacity index in supporting rural areas and geoparks by funding agencies. Competitive grants can be eliminated for rural areas with low index scores, creating room for lower-capacity communities. The agencies can motivate access to competitive grants by revising the needs for cost-benefit evaluations since they undervalue the lower-income and capacity communities. They can also eliminate the matching needs for county and city budgets in rural areas to meet the needs. Similarly, they can also permit the funding the create capacity such as training in long-term investment to boost economic incentives via geo-tourism. The agencies can also fund technical aid through federal and state agencies or non-profit organizations through technical air programs that provide expertise in implementing, designing, and identifying projects and grant proposals.

Conclusion

It is indeed true that geoparks and geotourism have many significances to the local people especially in the rural areas. Geoparks and geotourism promotes sustainable development in rural regions. They help in the promotion and maintenance of education and increased environmental conservation. Most of the geosparks in different parts of Spain and even globally ensure that the environments are preserved and various measures are placed to improve people’s well-beings. Again, it was established that geotourism is a vital driver of the geospark. Geoparks naturally adopt a holistic framework for their goals. They have shown higher growth and development rates to boost community growth in rural areas, creating employment for the community, building businesses, and creating revenue.

On the hand, for the UNESCO to declare a place as geospark, there are different considerations it must meet. One of the considerations is that the place must promote sustainable development. Even if it has a remarkable, widely popular geographical heritage of extraordinary universal values it cannot be an UNESCO Global Geopark except if the region also has an arrangement for the economic sustainability of individuals who live there. Another factor considered by before choosing a place as a geopark is that it must geological heritage of international values. Again, the place must have geoconservation. UNESCO Global Geoparks are regions that utilizes the idea of sustainability, esteem the legacy of Mother Earth and perceive the need to safeguard it.

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Spain.info. (2022). UNESCO Geoparks in Spain. How many and where are they? | spain.info in english. Spain.info. Retrieved 20 July 2022, from https://www.spain.info/en/discover-spain/world-geoparks-spain-nature/.

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