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Health Hazards, Research Paper Example

Pages: 11

Words: 3153

Research Paper

Introduction

Health is one element of human living that determines the capacity of a particular community or society to progress. It has been deemed essential for a society to host a healthy population to be able to sustain proper development especially relative to the needed condition of competence that a community should be able to depend upon. It is then considered that the governmental administrators are then specifically responsible for the assurance of the community’s health status. In relation to this, it is then important to note the different aspects of environmental situations that could impose on the health hazards that could worsen the health situation of a particular community.

In a way, this indicates that sustaining environmental integrity should always be a part of the campaign towards creating a more sustainable and specifically refined process of protecting the health of the populace. Largely, it could be understood that however the condition of the environment is would have a great impact on the process by which the health of the people is being protected. Relatively, in the discussion that follows, understanding how the environment does impact the health protection provided to the human population living in a particular community is to be given attention to. Through investigating four of the most common diseases that are related to environmentally ill practices, the capacity of the community to maintain control over the expansion of the cases involved shall be given proper attention to.

Background of the Study

This research is based upon the desire to create a working link between the capacities of the government to work towards developing their environmental programs in consideration with the hope of establishing better options of protecting public health and the impact that the diseases are making on the status of the government to becoming able to provide extensive assistance to the public. Hence, in line with this purpose, a comparison on the four major diseases to be introduced shall be given attention to so as to create a definite note on which of the said ailments actually create the hardest impact on the society as well as towards the individuals who suffer their occurrence.

Malaria

  • History and distribution in US and/or worldwide.

It has been noted through research that malaria is a disease that has been born even before the propagation of humans on earth. It is a lethally infectious disease that is able to expand its effect towards different parts of the world all in one single month. The parasite [eukaryotic protists] that causes it is noted to have evolved from imposing a simple process of growth into the body of its host to becoming more complex as it learns to adapt to the environment that it inhabits. This is the reason why malaria is considered to be among the fastest killing diseases that ever existed in human history as it can begin from simple fever to a coma and later on lead to death of the sufferer.

When it comes to the distribution of the disease, it was noted to have began in China, which made it easier for the said region to find more effective medications for the said disease in the form of artemisinin which is known for its antimalarial capacity to eradicate the disease itself. It was during the 20th century that the disease has been noted to have impacted the American region when the military men wend to Cuba for the completion of the Panama Canal. The year 1914 served as a great turn as the US government sought to find effective ways of controlling the widespread situation of the disease affecting more Americans during the said year.

As the years develop though, malaria comes back time and again and with heightened capacity to endanger its sufferers, hence research is continuously being given attention by medical experts hence creating possible solutions that could at some point be better than just the vaccines provided to the population.

  • How is it contracted? What are the symptoms?

Coming from infected mosquito bites, fever and shivering are among the most common onsets of malaria. This is usually accompanied by vomiting, jaundice as well as retinal damage. The cyclical process by which all these situations occur in a patient suffering from malaria gradually weakens the entire system of the body hence causing death if not treated immediately. If not causing immediate death after several days of being infected by the parasite, the sufferers may develop cerebral damages causing long time ailments.

  • What is the impact on health of infected individuals?

As mentioned from the symptoms of the onset of the ailment, the development of the disease’s taking over of the health system of the patient is rather fast paced. Hence, as a result, the patient’s suffering may cause increased irritation on the sufferer himself.

  • How common is infection in areas where it occurs?

Back in the early 1990s, malaria was noted to have been prevalent in regions of Europe and the United States as well as in North America. Relatively though, the quick response of the medical representatives in the said countries were able to help in the elimination of the said countries from the list of those largely affected by malaria up to this day. At present, the Sub-Saharan African region continues to remain in the top list of those being afflicted by the occurrence of the said disease.

  • What is the cure or treatment? What is the economic impact?

Since there are no specific fast response to the ailment as it does develop rapidly, vaccines have been promoted all over the globe so as to prevent the onset of any possible malaria outbreaks in different parts of the world. Notably though, not all countries could afford the vaccinations hence WHO [world health organization] provides support funding for those who might not have enough budget to support this particular healthcare requirement.

Leishmaniasis

  • History and distribution in US and/or worldwide.

This disease is noted to be caused by protozoan parasites and is distributed though the bite of sand flies belonging to certain species. The genus phlebotomus is noted to be the vector of transmission of this particular disease. Even though the disease is only transmissible between animal to human contact, there are very rare cases when human to human contact tend to impose such transmission as well. Starting from a bite from the female sand fly, the infection grows and further affects vital internal organs.

The carriers of the said infection were noted to have been thriving in the subtropical countries including the rainforests of Central and South America. For this reason there are at least 12 million people worldwide being affected by the ailment and at least 1.5 to 2 million new cases in America reported to be existing at present. Other cases come from regions including India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Brazil and certain areas in Sudan.

  • How is it contracted? What are the symptoms?

One of the symptoms of the ailment includes skin sores which would not develop immediately. The pushing out of the said sores usually occurs after a month of infection. The direction of the development of the disease in the patient’s body often last to as long as months to years hence is imposing a course of severe damage to the vital organs of the patient. Along the process, recurring fever could be experienced by the patient alongside the damage that the disease could cause on the liver and the imposition of anemia on the individual infected.

  • What is the impact on health of infected individuals?

As mentioned, the development of the ailment takes gradual impact on the patient’s overall health system. Considerably, it could be realized that with the pre-lengthened development, the patient is expected to incur more severe damages which would result to more physical irritation and disabilities depending on which part of the body is being attacked by the infection that grows further into the body’s system.

  • How common is infection in areas where it occurs?

At present, areas such as Bangladesh and India are the most commonly afflicted locations with most cases of Leishmaniasis. Most likely, the commonality of the case occurs in impoverished areas where infection is most likely to occur on individuals who have been bitten by the sand fly due to unsanitary practices.

  • What is the cure or treatment? What is the economic impact?

No clear treatments have been established to fight the prolonged reaction of the body systems to the infection caused by Leishmaniasis yet. Nevertheless, there are therapies that are produced to help the patients cope with the pain that it can cause. Prevention through vaccination is still one of the best resolutions imposed by healthcare workers to solve the problem.

Dengue Fever

  • History and distribution in US and/or worldwide.

Known to be a disease mostly existent in the tropical areas, dengue fever is noted for its fast transmission due to mosquito bite. Notably, although it is assumed to have lesser impact compared to how malaria develops in a patient, it is also considered to be deadly especially due to the increase of its affective distinction especially on the course by which it gradually impacts the body system of the patient. There are currently four types of mosquitoes that carry the infection that is transferred to humans to impose the occurrence of dengue fever on patients. Most often than not, a vaccine for one type of a mosquito bites infectious residue may not work on the others hence there are no current assured prevention for the implication of dengue fever on patients.

Today, 70% of the affected patients come from the tropical regions of the pacific which largely include the Asian regions. Only at least 15% of the case come from the American locations which are mostly increased by the existence of poverty in the said areas where patients mostly come from.

  • How is it contracted? What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of the occurrence of dengue fever on a patient is almost non evasive as they do not immediately show severe conditions. Recurring fevers may seem very normal at first especially on children. However, with the onset of the fluctuating blood pressure as well as that of the bleeding of the nose and gums accompanied by skin rashes often set higher stages of concentration of the fever and its impact on the vital organs of the body.

  • What is the impact on health of infected individuals?

Since the symptoms are not that easy to detect, some patients go undiagnosed until they are already undergoing severe internal damages which becomes evident due to more severe symptoms. The physical capacity of the patient gradually weakens and if the situation goes untreated for several days more, death could be a resulting factor to the matter.

  • How common is infection in areas where it occurs?

Philippines, India, and other Asian countries are reported to have an increased number of dengue fever cases through the year especially during the rainy season amidst all the vaccination campaigns held by the healthcare facilitators of the nations afflicted by the matter.

  • What is the cure or treatment? What is the economic impact?

Up to now, vaccines are considered as an eminent response to the issue of growing number cases of dengue fever especially in tropical countries. Relatively though, nutritional responses have been researched upon and proven effective in treating preliminary onset of the fever. However, these remedies do not work effectively towards those that are already in the terminal stage of the case.

Plague (Infectious Disease From Yersinia Pestis)

  • History and distribution in US and/or worldwide.

Caused by the enterobacterial Yersinia Pestis, rodents are the most common carriers of the bacteria that causes the infection of the ailment most commonly known as the “plague”. When it comes to further distribution of the ailment in the community, hygienic conditions often define the capacity of the bacteria to travel by air and transfer to other hosts specifically targeting the lungs. Each person afflicted by the impacting factors of the bacteria differs in the process by which the infection does thrive in their bodies. As of today, this plague is considered to be among the toughest considerations that are being researched by WHO and world health enthusiasts as it afflicts more than 46% of the overall population of humans around the globe.

Contact with rodents often cause the spreading of the disease however it is the increased rate of rodent population in specifically concentrated areas such as India, China as well as other areas that are highly stricken by social poverty. Although there are some cases in other regions including the European and American locations, the concentration of the disease remains heightened in the countries noted beforehand.

  • How is it contracted? What are the symptoms?

As mentioned earlier, it is most common that the disease is spread out by rodents however there are also some cases when the transmission of the ailment becomes airborne depending on the quality of the hygiene humans consider in the environment. The lymph node is the usual target of the bacteria hence causing deepened inflammation. With such inflammation, the bloodstream becomes infected hence resulting to different symptoms depending on the concentration of the ailment’s development.

  • What is the impact on health of infected individuals?

Prolonged as the development of the ailment is, the individuals afflicted by the ailment become slowly engaged in painful courses of system malfunction. And since the bacteria could impact the bloodstream, the patient becomes highly prone to other infections while being afflicted by the plague. Death is often a result when early detection of the ailment is given less care by the patient.

  • How common is infection in areas where it occurs?

With the rise of rodent population in certain target areas, the concentration of the increase of ailments occurring in line with the plague is still considered to be a high risk matter to consider. This specifically notes the fact that as of today, this ailment is still considered endemic in several parts of the world hence making it one of the deadliest forms of health issues coming after yellow fever and cholera.

  • What is the cure or treatment? What is the economic impact?

Antibiotics usually reduce the maturity rate of the bacteria however this should be imposed early on within the onset of the ailment on the patient concerned. When early detection is not regarded properly, it is most likely that death is to occur accordingly.

Comparison of Diseases

In relation to all the four diseases discussed herein, it could be realized that all have long time histories of becoming epidemic sources of health issues. Relatively though, malaria and dengue have been found to have some commonalities that are not being treated and researched upon by healthcare specialists. Efforts to control the spreading of the said diseases have been proven successful except for that of the plague which is now even being considered to have been plotted as an effective form of biological weapon. Being that the carrier of the disease is one of the most populated species in the world [the rodents] it is seemingly considered by healthcare specialists that handling the problem would largely depend on how humans respond to the need to consider hygienic practices. Relatively, it is assumed that the willingness of the people to engage in hygienic practices would largely decrease the increase of cases reported especially related to any of the four diseases mentioned in this discussion.

As it could be observed, most of the afflicted areas where the four diseases are concentrated involve highly impoverished societies living in slumps and other locations where it is hard to keep hygienic practices at a regular scale of concentration. This is the reason why even though there have already been well defined vaccines designed to prevent malaria and dengue fever from occurring in several tropic countries, environmental integrity remains to be a considerable problem that makes it impossible to completely eliminate the occurrence of such health hazards on the population of the residents living in the said areas.

Relating to this fact, the World Health Organization continues to monitor the growth of the number of afflicted members of the society in relation to these diseases. So far, although the plague remains to be an evident course of continues pandemic on some nations, dengue fever receives the highest rate of concentration especially when it comes to the recurring impact it has on the economy of nations thriving around the equator noted as the tropical countries.

At this point, it could be observed how the impacting effect of governmental efforts would actually connive to work collaboratively alongside the efforts of the entire society to control the growth rate of the carriers of the bacteria causing the infection which later on develops to the diseases aforementioned. It is with the cooperation between parties involved that success over the desire to eliminate these diseases could be consolingly achieved. Without such cooperation, it would be much impossible for any changes to occur in relation to the reports of the recurring endemic caused by the increased population of the carriers of the bacteria. Economic budget would continuously be utilized in waste especially if such cooperation is not established properly.

Conclusion

In a world thriving in development, it could not be denied that poverty remains a common element among different nations around the globe. There are instances when this very issue of developmental ailment becomes a cause for larger problems that involve the degrading factor of healthcare status in specific areas of the globe. Notably, it could be assessed that somehow, the course of developmental progress that the campaign towards controlling the situation becomes more effective if each optional step is considered with cooperation between the government and its people. Health hazards could be contained but only if all parties involved responds in unity to the situation in full command of their goals. With this in thought, information deliberation would be a great source of confidence for such campaigns hence equipping even that of the poor locations with the right knowledge they need to respond to the challenge of change they have to consider in line with their desired results of living in a healthier environment.

References

Ainapure, SS (2003). “Miltefosine: great expectations against visceral leishmaniasis”. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 49 (1): 101–3.

Cohn, Samuel K. (2003). The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. A Hodder Arnold. pp. 336.

Ernest Jawetz, and others. Medical Microbiology. 18th ed. United States: Prentice-Hall International Inc., 1989.

Humphreys M (2001). Malaria: Poverty, Race, and Public Health in the United States. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-8018-6637-5.

Rush AB (1789). “An account of the bilious remitting fever, as it appeared in Philadelphia in the summer and autumn of the year 1780”. Medical enquiries and observations. Philadelphia: Prichard and Hall. pp. 104–117.

Sachs J, Malaney P (2002). “The economic and social burden of malaria”. Nature 415 (6872): 680–5.

Sampath A, Padmanabhan R (January 2009). “Molecular targets for flavivirus drug discovery”. Antiviral Res. 81 (1): 6–15.

Trudel N. et al. (2008). “Intracellular survival of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis is significantly reduced by HIV-1 protease inhibitors”. Journal of Infectious Diseases 198 (9): 1292–1299.

Webster DP, Farrar J, Rowland-Jones S (November 2009). “Progress towards a dengue vaccine”. Lancet Infect Dis 9 (11): 678–87.

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