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Horizontal Transference of Genetic Information, Essay Example

Pages: 2

Words: 662

Essay

Abstract

The legacy that the concept of gene transfer has contributed since its inference as a primary force in evolution has been a source of controversy.  This research reviews the perspectives on gene transfer from the bacteria, prokaryotic and eukaryotic perspectives.  The influence and the predominance of the genes that are horizontally transferred will be explored.  The predominance of horizontally transferred genes will be reviewed.

Introduction

A theory has been proposed that recommended that there are other mechanism that cause evolution aside from mutations and natural selection. The horizontal transfer of genes has been viewed as crucial in the relationship of the bacteria and the archaea.  Horizontal gene transfer has been attempted to reconfigure the phylogenetic relationships that are present between organisms.  The application of RNA 16S genes has been applied as an effective genetic marker in order to demonstrate a genetic tree of life (Boto, 2009).

The restrictions that have been placed on the genetic tree of life are the natural selection and mutation consideration.  The horizontal transfer of genetic information can occur from the organisms that compose the eukaryote species, between the bacteria to the eukaryote, from the archaea to the eukaryote species from the archaea to the bacteria and to= from the bacteria to the archaea species.  The primary questions that are addressed in this articles is what percentage of any given organism is constituted from genes that have been attained during horizontal gene transfer (Boto, 2009).

The genes which are not inherently in an organisms and have been acquired by means of gene transfer are improved subsequent to the passing of generations.  This is attributed to the premise that the inherent genetic information and the information that has been acquired through genetic transfer are components of the identical genome.  In any given organism, it can be approximated that between 1.6 to 96 percent of an organisms ‘genetic material is acquired by means of the transfer of genetic material.  It is perceived that the participation of horizontal genetic material transfer hades a more substantial role in evolution than previously theorized (Boto, 2009).

One of the primary questions that is presented is has there been horizontal gene transfer between species that are distantly related in comparison to the species that are closely related.  The cloning of Escherichia coli bacteria has been attempted.  It hades been observed that the missing components ewer the genes that provided information.  These informational genes are a minute fraction of the genetic material.  Another perspective that should be considered in the transferred of genetic information is the manner by which the information is transferred.  The sustenance of the genetic material that has been transferred is connected with the positive selection processes in the evolutionary chains (Boto, 2009).

In a study that was performed reviewing the genetic transference of information between the archaea and the bacteria, there had been 188 genetic transferences of information. The majority of the transferences of genetic information occurred between the bacteria to the archaea.  Additional research has demonstrated that a small percentage of the genes (0.7 %) of the genetic material can be considered to be central genes.  The minute percentage of the central genes that are available cause the reconfiguration of the phylogenetic tree to become infeasible.  In any given organism, less than 8 % of the genes are carriers of genetic material and are evident in almost all of the genomes that have been sampled (Boto, 2009).

The horizontal transference of genetic information is a significant quality in evolution. The gene exchange occurs in organisms that are closely related and organisms that are distantly related. The participation of the horizontal transference of genetic material is important in th4e development of all species. The percentage of horizontally transferred genetic information is assessed to be 1.6 % to 96% of the genetic information in all organisms.

Research Question

What participation might natural selection have in the horizontal transmission of genetic information?

References

Boto, L. (2009). Horizontal gene transfer in evolution: Facts and challenges. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Proc. R, Soc. B, March 2009.

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