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How the Sun Produces Heat and Light, Essay Example

Pages: 6

Words: 1755

Essay

Nowadays, the sphere of nanotechnology, necessary to study the Sun in detail, appears to be very popular and attractive for the researchers who are trying to make their contribution into this field of knowledge. According to the definition, the term of nanotechnology means the study of manipulating on the atomic and molecular dimensions. This brunch of study usually deals with the particles, which sizes fluctuate from 1 to 100 nanometer and includes developing of some materials within that size. Indisputably, nanotechnology covers many different fields of activity from investigating the traditional device physics from the new perspective to the developing of some innovative techniques based on the molecular self-assembly. One of the most important questions within this science is the study of solar energy, which is likely to press the traditional sources of energy in future (Pernick & Wilder, 2008). Although the nanotechnology is regarded to be quite a positive phenomenon, there are many discussions in the scientific world dedicated to its application. On the one hand, it makes possible to create many new materials and devices, which can be used in conducting the surveys of the way the Sun produces heat and light.

The Sun as the Cosmic Body

Concerning the notion of the Sun, it is worth taking into consideration that the scientists consider it as a huge cosmic body; obviously, the sun is much bigger in comparison with our planet. It is important to make mention that “…the Sun constitutes 99 percent of the solar system’s mass.” (Wood, 2001, p. 40) Speaking about this cosmic body, it possible to emphasize the community of like-minded scientists who advance an argument that the sun occurs as a nuclear reactor; it is characterized by constant burning the hydrogen (Pernick & Wilder, 2008). One should be aware that the hydrogen is the main fuel during the fusion reactions. As for the temperature of the Sun, it is necessary to make mention that the experts within the area of solar system state it to be about 6000 ºC; yet, one should understand that such a temperature is on the surface. Regarding the temperature within the core, there are various suggestions. In any way, it is obviously much higher and, in accordance with many scientists, is close to1million ºC. Considering the huge cosmic body, which is the Sun, one cannot but encounter the fact that it is a huge star. Evidently, the sun is similar to all the rest of the starts that one can see in the galaxy; the only peculiar thing, which is different in comparison with the other stars lies in the distance from our planet. It is important to take into consideration the fact that the Sun is approximately eight light minutes away from the Earth.

As it was mentioned before, the Sun appears to be much closer to our planet; consequently, it is exactly about this cosmic body, which provides the Earth with both heat and light. The point is that the amount of heat and light that the Earth received from the Sun is absolutely balanced, since it enables people to be neither burnt nor refrigerated. Concerning the surface of the sun, one should be aware that it consists of a variety of different gases combined together.

Peculiarities of Nuclear Fusion Reactions

Regarding the notion of nuclear fusion, it is worth knowing that the scientists consider it as the process based on the principle of the mixture of two nuclei of atoms in order to create a new element having much higher atomic number. Inevitably, nuclear fusion emerges as the contrary process to nuclear fission. Analyzing the solar system, one should understand that the Sun as well as the other cosmic bodies appeared to be powered by the discussion process of nuclear fusion.

Speaking about the power generator of the cosmic body, which is under discussion, it is worth saying that it is basically placed in the centre, usually, the scientists consider it as the core. Speculating upon its radius, it become apparent that it is approximately one fourth the general radius. Obviously, the core contains optimal environment for the process of nuclear fusion reactions.

Two hydrogen atoms within the cycle of proton-proton reaction change into a helium nucleus. It is clear that about 62 percent of the core form the helium; as for the rest 38 percent mass, they constitute hydrogen. As for the gamma rays, they are formed owing to the fusion reactions (Geis & Hultqvist, 2005). Evidently, gamma rays (i.e. photons of high quality) emerged to be soaked up by the gas in the process of passing through the radiative area. Speaking about the radiative zone, it occupies more than 50 percent of the radius of the Sun; as a result, the photons are likely to pass the radiative zone for millions of years. Both radiative and convective zones produce approximately 70 percent hydrogen and about 25 percent helium. During this process, it is possible to observe the emission of such elements as deuterium and neutrinos. Concerning the fusion reaction, it is worth making mention that Einstein analyzed this notion in his theory of relativity. On the basis of numerous surveys it becomes clear the solar energy emerged to be emitted in various fractions of light. What is more, the Sun is also characterized by emitting the by-products of the discussion process. It is obvious that when the current energy is produced as the consequence of fusion reaction in the area of the core, a certain pressure is produced in parallels.

The Mechanism of the Solar Activity

The pressure theory proves fusion reactions to be the matter of great importance in terms of not only producing energy radiation but also protecting the solar system from destruction. The thing is that the Sun would definitely collapse if fusion reactions were weak; all in all, one should take into account the fact that the Sun contains quite a balanced pressure, which makes a stream of energy sustainable. Considering the Sun, it is necessary to be aware that the energy as the result of corresponding reactions is, initially, delivered to the Sun’s surface; later, the energy occurs as the radiation of heat and light. It is important to make mention that the Sun can be characterized by its constant radiation of energy in seriously large amounts. Obviously, the scientists articulate the idea that if it were possible to create a huge ball around the discussion cosmic body, people would be able to change the Sun’s energy into the electricity. However, due to the shortage of such a sphere, much of the Sun’s energy is simply wasted.

As for the amount of energy that the Earth receives from the Sun, it is necessary to admit that this amount is vividly not great; most of the Sun’s energy enters interstellar horizon. It is obvious that since the distance between the Earth and the Sun is not short even though much closer in comparison with most of the other stars, the amount of energy is also much limited. As a result, it is possible to assume that in case the distance were shorter, the Earth would definitely absorb more energy of the Sun. As for the radiation, it emerges as the consequence of the heat movement from the initial location to another one. The Sun’s radiation reaches our planet as the electromagnetic waves. Beyond doubts, the radiation incorporates the light; a peculiar thing is that the electromagnetic waves possess rather a high speed, and, consequently, it is evaluated as the speed of sunlight. Despite the fact that our space cannot be regarded as the vacuum because of that it encloses a variety of various particles, it is considered as the value. Due to the fact that the distance between the Sun and our planet appears to be about 1.5 x 108km, it is necessary approximately 8 minutes for the heat to approach the surface of the Earth. It is important to draw attention to the fact that the photons of high quality are characterized by producing visible light; it is also possible to encounter gamma rays as the result of fusion reactions. All in all, the gamma rays are forced to pass a long journey on the way to the Sun’s surface, they usually emerge as completely soaked up by the plasma of the Sun. As a consequence, they are re-emitted to low frequency rays. At the moment when the electromagnetic radiations approach the atmosphere of our planet, it is necessary to mention that many of them are soaked up; however, some still reach the surface of the Earth.

Conclusion

To conclude, one should be conscious that the distance between the Earth and the Sun occurs to influence the amount of energy our planet gets from the Sun. Having conducted a survey of the way the Sun is arranged, it is possible to sum up that this cosmic body proves to be of great significance to the Earth, since it produces both light and heat; these two varieties of electromagnetic radiation makes life on the Earth possible (Halverson & Smith, 1974, p. 1). Consequently, it is necessary to continue studying the peculiarities of this gigantic cosmic body in order to become aware of all the principles of its activity. Regarding the structure of the Sun, it is necessary to pay attention to probable divergences that the scientists notice within this cosmic body. Evidently, 21st century may characterized by excessive industrial development; although, initially, it is hard to figure out some connection between the Sun and the process of urbanization, the solar system still appears to show some negative displacements last time. Consequently, one should be aware that despite the serious breakthrough within the area of industrial development, the scientists have to be concerned about the recent destructive tendencies within the cosmic body, which is under discussion. Moreover, each person should finally come to understanding that the solar system is not the invariable structure; as a consequence, it is necessary to seek the ways, which would minimize the negative effect of the solar destructive processes.

References

Geis, J., Hultqvist, B. (Eds.). (2005). The Solar System and Beyond Ten years of ISSI. ISSI Scientific Report SR-003, ISSI/ESA, Bern/Noordwijk, vi + 256 pp. (ISSN 1608-208x).

Halverson, H.G., Smith, J.L. (1974). Controlling Solar Light and Heat in a Forest by Managing Shadow Sources. USD. Berkeley,California. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. pp. 1-9.

Pernick, R., and Wilder, C. (2008). Utility Solar Asessment (USA). Study Reaching Ten Percent By 2025. Washington D.C.: Clean Edge Inc. and Co-op American Foundation.

Wood. B. (2001). The Formation and Differentiation of Earth. Physics Today, 64, pp. 40-45.

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