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Human Anatomy and Physiology, Questionnaire Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1111

Questionnaire

What boundary defines the conducting versus the respiratory divisions of the respiratory system?

Anatomically, the conducting and the respiratory divisions are often separated into the upper and lower respiratory tracts.

What is a tracheostomy? What do doctors and the machine need to do carefully to make sure that the tracheostomy doesn’t result in infection or cause other problems?

According to Wikipedia, “tracheostomy is a surgical procedure which consists of making an incision on the anterior aspect of the neck and opening a direct airway through an incision in the trachea (windpipe). The resulting stoma (hole), or tracheostomy, can serve independently as an airway or as a site for a tracheostomy tube to be inserted; this tube allows a person to breathe without the use of his or her nose or mouth. Both surgical and percutaneous techniques are widely used in current surgical practice. “(Wikipedia). Doctors performing the surgery must make sure the instruments they utilize are properly disinfected, and also that they push the tubes correctly, without damaging the tissues.

How many lobes do the lungs have (on each side?)

The right lung has three lobes and the left one has two lobes.

What do the pleurae do? How?

The visceral pleura receives its blood supply from the bronchial circulation, which also supplies the lungs. The parietal pleura receives its blood supply from the intercostal arteries, which also supply the overlying body wall. The pleural cavity, with its associated pleurae, aids optimal functioning of the lungs during breathing. The pleural cavity also contains pleural fluid, which allows the pleurae to slide effortlessly against each other during ventilation. Surface tension of the pleural fluid also leads to close apposition of the lung surfaces with the chest wall. (Wikipedia).

Which muscle is most important for breathing?

The diaphragm is the most important muscle for breathing.

What is the Valsalva maneuver?

The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one’s mouth, pinching one’s nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon (Wikipedia).

Is it possible to kill yourself by holding your breath? Explain why or why not – in detail.

Even if there were some particular cases in which people died from holding their breath registered, it is not possible to simply die from holding your breath. However, the most significant reason due to which death cannot be caused from breath holding is the fact that if you refuse to breathe you fall out of consciousness, you do not die instantly. And unconsciously, you start breathing again.

If someone is stabbed in the chest or receives gunshot wound, they become unable to breathe. What is this called? What is the best immediate first aid for this problem (before going to the emergency room)?

If someone is stabbed in the chest or receives gunshot wound, they become unable to breathe, causing trauma nursing. In such cases, the ATLS protocols should be applied. First of all, a primary survey of the patient’s ABCs is important – airway, breathing and circulation. These should be investigated. Also, if the patient’s agitated, then it might be the case of hypoxia. If he/she is confused, then it is hypercapnia. Rest assured, the wound should not be touched, and the bleeding should be stopped at any costs.

What is spirometry? What are tidal volume (TV) and vital capacity (VC)? What are these measurements used for in clinical settings?

Spirometry is a common office test used to assess how well the lungs work by measuring how much air is inhaled, how much it is exhaled and how quickly it is exhaled. The tidal volume is a difference between volumes after a normal inhalation and a normal exhalation. Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. They are utilized in clinical settings through the spirometer when investigating the health of the patient’s lungs, circulation and overall state.

What is the composition of air?

Air is a mixture of gases – 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen – with traces of water vapor, carbon dioxide, argon, and various other components. (The Engineering ToolBox)

What variables can alter the normal loading and unloading of gases?

A multitude of variables, such as deoxyhemoglobin, Oxyhemoglobin etc, could alter the normal loading and unloading of gases. Also, it rests upon the patient’s style of living and culinary customs whether the tubes are properly dilated or not, so as to allow gases to travel properly.

How is oxygen carried in the blood?

Oxygen is carried in the blood to all body tissues by red blood cells (erythrocytes).

Describe the Hill effect (your book calls this the “oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve”).

The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is a curve that plots the proportion of hemoglobin in its saturated (oxygen-laden) form on the vertical axis against the prevailing oxygen tension on the horizontal axis. (Wikipedia).

Is CO2 carried through the blood in the same way as oxygen? If not, then how?

No, CO2 is not carried in the same way as oxygen in the blood. Rather, it can be carried as dissolved CO2, bound to haemoglobin and plasma proteins or in the composition of bicarbonate ions.

Why is it harder to catch your breath at high altitude (Is there really less oxygen on the top of Mount Everest?)

It is not due to the air that we breathe more difficultly at high altitude, but rather due to pressure. The entire atmosphere decreases in pressure, making it harder to breathe.

Why do scuba divers need to return to the surface slowly?

They turn back slowly because of the dissolved nitrogen coming out of tissues. It passes from the tissue to the bloodstream and to the lungs, and if it is exhaled too quickly, it will form bubbles which can be extremely dangerous if reaching the brain or the heart.

Challenge question: On October 14, 2012, Felix Baumgartner jumped to the ground from an altitude of 127,851 feet, setting a new world record. (The POV video of his flight is available on YouTube, and is fascinating.) Obviously, Felix had to wear an oxygen mask and a space suit. Obviously, there’s no oxygen in space, but why did he also have to wear a space suit? Why couldn’t he just dress himself in very warm clothing? (Hint: Look up the Armstrong limit).

The function of the spacesuit is not only that of keeping the body warm, but also that of protection against radiation and low pressure. Moreover, it allows people to breathe better. It is common knowledge that the space is extremely cold, but few would know that it is also filled with dangerous radiation. Hence, the spacesuit helps people survive in space.

Works Cited

“Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve”. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22nd July 2004 Web. 29 October 2015 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen%E2%80%93hemoglobin_dissociation_curve

“Pleural cavity.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22nd July 2004 Web. 29 October 2015 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleural_cavity

“Valsalva maneuver.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22nd July 2004 Web. 29 October 2015 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valsalva_maneuver

“Tracheotomy.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22nd July 2004 Web. 29 October 2015  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tracheotomy

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