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Human Subjects in Research, Essay Example

Pages: 1

Words: 294

Essay

Introduction

Today, the use of human subjects in research is well regulated in every country, however, there are different debates regarding the requirements, form of disclosure, based on ethical standards. The Nuremberg Code is developed to protect the human rights of people becoming – willingly – research subjects, but some scholars state that using humans for research is completely unacceptable. The below study would review the current ethical codes, regulations and debates regarding using humans for science.

Ethics and human subjects

The above mentioned Nuremberg Code was first published in 1946. It was a result of claims that during the war, Nazi doctors used human subjects for different experiments. The code has a number of important clauses, such as the requirement to seek consent from the person, who would get involved in the experiment or research, as well as the disclosure of conditions, methods, effects on the patient’s health and possible risks. Today, a patient also has the right to withdraw their participation at any point, without giving any exact reasons for the project owner or researcher. Privacy and confidentiality are also a part of general regulations, and in order to preserve the dignity and identity of the patients, different measures need to be put in place. The ethical standards of research and publication clearly state that informed consent to research need to be sought, and clear and understandable terms and language need to be used to ensure the participants are aware of all the details. It is also important to use special measures in order to protect the interest and health of patients. The 1974 National Research Act also covers the ethical requirements of research, distinguishing between psychological and biomedical types of research.

References

Freeman, S. (2000) Ethics: An Introduction to Philosophy and Practice. Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc

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