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Human Trafficking, Research Paper Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1058

Essay

Human trafficking is definitely one of the most severe problems in contemporary society. “Annually, about 600,000 to 800,000 people – mostly women and children –are trafficked across national borders, which does not count millions trafficked within their own countries.” (Office of Public Policy and Social Concern, 2007). According to official website of INTERPOL, there are three primary types of trafficking in persons, such as trafficking in woman for sexual exploitation, child sexual exploitation, and people smuggling. Though people smuggling does not involve force and abuse, it is considered to be illegal because person enters the country without any authorization and, therefore, breaks the immigration line (INTERPOL, 2008). There are several reasons for human trafficking. For instance, some people are physically forced to illegal work; others are tricked by false promises regarding excellent career opportunities or possible marriage. “Examples of recent cases of human trafficking in the U.S. include adolescent Mexican girls trafficked to the U.S. for forced prostitution, Indian men trafficked for forced labor, and African women and children trafficked for domestic servitude, among others.” (Office of Public Policy and Social Concern, 2007) Government officials understand the size of the problem and, therefore, try to reduce the number of illegitimate migrations and flow of illegal workers by many means. Various departments investigate this issue and a lot of laws protect the rights of victims.

US Department Health and Human Services, US Department of Justice, US Department of Labor, US Department of State, and US Department of Homeland Security are those governmental institutions, which are developed to monitor human trafficking, eliminate it, and help its victims. The US departments discussed above focus on distinct aspects of human trafficking and altogether form a net of human rights protection. For instance, US Department of Homeland Security is the institution that identifies the cases of human trafficking and checks eligibility of person’s migration status or simply entry to the county. In case of human trafficking, US Department of Justice investigates the case itself and accuses criminals. In fact, US Department of Homeland Security and US Department of Justice are meant to react on the very action of the crime immediately, while the remaining branches are targeted on victims’ coordination. To be more specific, US Department Health and Human Services certifies the victims of human trafficking, which allows them to receive several federally funded benefits such as medical treatment, accommodation, etc. US Department of Labor “offers programs such as job-search, job-placement assistance and job-counseling services as well as educational and training services and referrals to supportive services such as transportation, childcare and housing, through its One-Stop Career Center System – which victims can access after HHS certification.” (Administration for Children and Families, 2008) These four institutions operate inside the country, while US Department of State is in charge of coordination of programs against human trafficking worldwide.

All these institutions operate according to “Victims of Trafficking and Violence protection Act of 2000”. This Act was developed: to protect individuals who have been victimized in the most severe fashion with the ability to: remain in the US (temporarily and in some cases longer) and receive federal and state assistance; protections for certain crime victims including victims of crimes against women; and law enforcement agencies with a comprehensive law that will enable them to pursue the prosecution and conviction of traffickers. (US Citizenship and Immigration Services, 2009)

There are numerous cases when people were allowed to stay in the country for rather long period of time according to this Act. For instance, a lot of students all over the world receive fake job offers, when they enter the country being participants of Global “Work and Travel” or “Au Pair” programs. As students are left with no place to work, and sometimes even with no place to live, by applying for job-searching programs and certifying their status, they are able to receive help from the government.

Secondly, victims are protected by “The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols”, which was adopted on November 2000. According to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, its primary goal is to investigate international crimes and to bring to court international offenders. However, this convention also addresses illegal trafficking and abuse.

The Convention is further supplemented by three Protocols, which target specific areas and manifestations of organized crime: the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children; the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air; and the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition. (UNODC, 2009)

According to the Title 18, section § 1584 of the US Code – “Sale into involuntary servitude”, any person, who involuntary forces someone to work on the territory of the United States, is considered to be a subject of imprisonment for no more than 20 years. If any attempts of sexual abuse or kidnapping are found, criminal can be imprisoned for more than 20 years or even for life sentence.

In conclusion, I would like to mention government participates actively in the investigation of human trafficking cases for several reasons. On the one hand, illegal immigrants, who enter the country every day breaking the immigration line, are a threat to the country’s security and economy. On the other, victims of child abuse and women trafficking in sexual purposes definitely need protection from the US government. The writer of this research has clearly examined various laws and federal institutions that are meant to protect human rights on the territory of the United States. Their active position in maintaining control and investigation of this problem is obvious. Moreover, Federal Departments not only support the victims of human trafficking and accuse criminals inside the country, but also operate internationally. By working worldwide, their attempts to diminish the number of crimes and abuse are more effective.

References

Office of Public Policy and Social Concern. (2007). Human Trafficking. Retrieved May 10, 2009 from http://www.sflifeandjustice.org/human%20trafficking.html.

INTERPOL. (2008). Trafficking in human beings. Retrieved May 10, 2009 from http:/ /www.interpol.int/Public/THB/default.asp.

Administration of Children and Families. (2008). Federal Government Efforts To Combat Human Trafficking. Retrieved May 10, 2009 from http:/ /www.acf.hhs.gov/ trafficking/rescue_restore/fed_efforts.html.

US Citizenship and Migration Services. (2009). Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. Retrieved May 10, 2009 from http:/ /www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis/menuitem.5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/?vgnextoid= 5cca6138f898d010VgnVCM10000048f3d6a1RCRD&vgnextchannel=48819c7755cb9010VgnVCM10000045f3d6a1RCRD.

UNODC. (2009). The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol. Retrieved May 10, 2009 from http:/ /www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index.html.

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