Information Technology, Term Paper Example

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Term Paper

Introduction

Information technology has become a household name. The shift from the manual ways of processing data to the information technology is a trend that has been adopted by all business and people. The information technology is a set of tools that helps you work with information and perform task related to information processing. It includes computers, computer networks, hardware, operating system, internet and so forth. In information technology, these features can be combined or used separately to process data. Computer proficiency is a necessity in every organization.

Information technology entails information systems, hardware, software, users and data. It is an exclusive package of the system and the people who use it. The information system is a link between the soft ware and hardware that support the processing of data. Software refers to programs that keep the computer working by sending commands to the hardware.  Information technology is a synchronization and coordination of various aspects that perform complementary roles. The benefits of the information technology are profound. All sectors from security, employment, communication, education, entertainment have good things to show about it. However, at some point information technology is termed as unavoidable.

Internet connectivity

The internet has revolutionized information technology in many aspects. It is a critical part of the current information age. Nothing much can go on without the internet. The internet is the connection between many computers, which facilitates sharing of information. Nobody actually owns internet, anybody can share anything, which makes it better. It is like a public forum for the whole world. The internet keeps improving daily. Many applications and soft wares that are more users friendly and efficient are being rolled out in the market. Things like wireless connectivity and cloud computing are trending now.

Internet service providers (ISP) make internet accessibility possible. Most ISPs require users to subscribe to their services. Internet connectivity enables us to access the internet. This is what most people know. However, there are other technicalities involved apart from subscribing for the internet from the provider. So how does this ISP work? The ISP maintains a pool of modems, which is managed by a dedicated computer. Since the internet encompasses many computers linked to each other, each computer connected to the internet must have a unique address called the IP address. Since each computer in the internet network has a different IP address, communication between them is allowed by the use of the protocol stack. It is usually, in built in the computers operating system. The protocol stack is called TCP. The TCP facilitates communication between the computers in the network.  Information is sent in small chunks called packet. The computer allows flow of information from the pool to the routers. There is an internet routing hierarchy that shows the flowing down of data.  The router is connected between networks to route data between them. It also recognizes the sub networks and the IP addresses they use. When packet arrives at the router, the router checks the IP address if the network where that packet is from is in IP address, the router sends the packet there. If there is no network in the IP address, the router sends it to the default network. In the hierarchy, we have the domain names and the internet protocols such as the HTTP, which is an application protocol that makes the internet work. Other application protocols support the commonly used features in the internet such as emails.

There are various options when it comes to internet connection. One can use a modem, DSL, fiber optic, satellite connection and the wireless internet connections.  A modem is makes use of the analogue telephone line to transfer data. It is one of the slowest and the most economical means. The modem converts the analogue signals to digital data. With this connection, the data rates are limited, and the speed is limiting too. The fastest modems can run at a speed of 57 600 bps.

DSL (digital subscriber line) is another internet connection option. It uses the existing telephone lines to transmit data. Unlike the modem, it does not tie up the internet to the phone. It is better when it come to speed. Though the DSL services, are not available everywhere.

A cable is also used to access the internet. There are types of cables which are the coaxial and fiber optic cables. The fiber optic is made up of strands of ultra thin remarkable optical material that carry data over long distances. A coaxial cable is just like the normal T.V cables. For one to use the cable connection, they have to subscribe with the local cable provider. It can be quite costly depending on the provider, but the speed is good.

Lastly there is wireless internet connection option. With this connection, no cables or wires are used. The wireless craze has been utilized more on the phones than the computers. With this method, the only thing required is an account from the wireless service providers. Wireless uses the radio frequency, and the internet can be accessed from anywhere within the network coverage area. It is quite new, fast and expensive. However, there are places such as the java that offers free wireless.

These internet connection options vary in speed. The modem is the slowest. Others are fast but expensive. Problems related to internet connections can be IP address conflicts, firewall malfunctions or when one is out of the wireless range.

Works cited

Douglas, C. The Internet Book: Everything You Need to Know About Computer Networking and           How the Internet Works (4th Edition) Prentice Hall.(2006)

Forester, T.  the Information technology revolution. MIT  Press. 1985

Schulers, R. How Does the Internet Work? 2005, retrieved on 6th Dec, 2012, from             <http://www.theshulers.com/whitepapers/internet_whitepaper/index.html>

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