Interpreting Research Questions Using Manova, Research Paper Example

MANOVA analysis is a type of ANOVA analysis in which there is more than one dependent variable (Huberty & Olejnik, 2006).   MANOVA is typically used to see how the factors differentiate across different groups captured in the dependent variables (Freedman, 1997).

Feeny’s (1999) study looks at the relationship between different types of attachment style and marital satisfaction.  In particular, she hypothesizes that emotional control will predict marital satisfaction, after own and partner’s attachment were statistically controlled for.  The author chose 238 married couples.  The independent variable, emotional control, was measured in 12 two item scales relating how they controlled negative and positive emotions.  The dependent variables were the husband’s and wife’s marital satisfaction score (measured using the Quality Marriage Index instrument).  Overall, the marital satisfaction score of husband’s was predicted by their own partner’s attachment index F (4,194) 14.69 <.001. The wives’ marital satisfaction was also predicted by their own and their partner’s own attachment dimension F( 4,194), 16.00, p<.001.  Thus, the study found that emotional attachment was a key predictor of marital satisfaction among husbands and wives.

Carstensen et al. (1999) explain the relationship between emotional behavior on gender and marital satisfaction. The authors used a three-stage sampling procedure to recruit a total of 156 couples that were assigned to groups based on age and marital satisfaction.  The independent variable in the analysis was emotional behavior- 15 specific SPAFF codes and 4 listener codes were used.  There were a total of three dependent variables for which SPAFF codes were broke down for: 1) age (middle-aged versus older couples); 2) satisfaction (happy versus unhappy); 3) spouse in marriage (husband versus wife).  The overall MANOVA analysis revealed a significant main effects for all of the dependent variables: age F(17,136)= 4.25, p>.001; satisfaction, F (17,136)=2.13, p=.009; spouse, F (17, 136)= 5.37, p<.001.


Carstensen, L.A., Gottman, J.M. & Gottman, J.M. (1995). Emotional behavior in long-term marriage.  Psychology and Aging, 10(1).  140-149.

Feeney, J.A. (1999).  Adult attachment, emotional control, and marital satisfaction.  Personal Relationships, 6(1), 169-185.

Freedman, J.  (1997). Statistics. New York: Wiley

Huberty, C.J. & Olejnik, S. (2006).  Applied MANOVA and Discriminant Analysis. New York: Wiley.