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Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women, Essay Example

Pages: 7

Words: 1795

Essay

Domestic violence can also be called domestic abuse or family violence and involves a behavioral pattern that is associated with violence as well as abuse in a family or a home setting. It usually takes place in both heterosexual as well as same sex relationships and can also involve the children as well. The children may also be the cause of the violence when they commit unfavorable actions to their parents as well as the other siblings. Domestic involves a willful intimidation, battery, physical, psychological and sexual assault or any other form of abusive behavior that forms a systematic power struggle pattern as well as control that is commonly perpetuated by one partner in an intimate relationship. The level of severity as well as frequency of domestic violence may vary significantly but the basic component involves consistent efforts of one of the partners in the maintenance of control as well as power over another.

Domestic violence is a serious epidemic that is common in majority of the communities irrespective of the status of the concerned parties with regard to their age, religion, race, nationality, sexual orientation, economic status as well as level of education. The vice is rarely reported due to some barriers because the offenders are the source of financial and emotional support to their victims (Lichtenstein & Johnson, 2009). The most notable feature that accompanies domestic violence is a controlling behavior marked with physical and emotional abuse which forms a small fraction of the universal prototype of control as well as dominance. The results of domestic violence can range from physical injury to psychological trauma, and in extreme cases, death may result. The effects of domestic violence may involve psychological, physical as well as emotional consequences across generations as well as entire lifetime of an individual.

Literature

Bonomi, A. E., Anderson, M. L., Reid, R. J., Carrell, D., Fishman, P. A., Rivara, F. P., et al. (2007). Intimate partner violence in older women. Gerontologist, 47 , 34-41.

The author documents issues of prevalence, level of severity, frequency as well as duration of domestic violence among women of ages above 65 years. According to the findings of the study, 26.5 percent of the females are exposed to domestic violence in the lifetime. 18.4 percent faced cases of sexual and physical violence while 21.9 percent were exposed to non physical forms of violence. 3.5 percent were exposed to violence for a period of five years.

Asling-Monemi, K., Peña, R., Ellsberg, M. C., & Persson, L. A., (2003). Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: A case-referent study in    Nicaragua. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(1), 10-18.

The author of this article documents the effects of domestic violence on the mortality risks associated with mothers rearing children in the age bracket of 0 to 5 years. Important factors that promote domestic violence were noted as the level of education of the mother, their age as well as parity. There was a close association between sexual as well as physical violence and pregnancy with significant risks of mortality of the infant below the age of five years.

Brooks, S. L. (2008). The use of the creative therapies with survivors of domestic violence. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher LTD.

Brooks documents the effectiveness of the use of supervision, art, drama, music, play, dance and movement can also be used successfully in intervention and treatment of victims and offenders in domestic violence. Brooks is interested in highlighting the treatment approaches related to creative art in domestic violence intervention.

Jasinski, J. L., & Dietz, T. L. (2003). Domestic violence and stalking among older adults: Assessment of risk markers. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 15 (1), 3–18.

The journal accounts for domestic violence on older adults with alcohol consumption and employment status playing a key role in perpetuating physical violence. Older women were more exposed to physical assault compared to their counterpart older men. The survey was conducted by National Violence Against Women, NVAW.

Lichtenstein, B., & Johnson, I. M. (2009). Older African American Women and Barriers to Reporting Domestic Violence to Law Enforcement in the Rural Deep South. Women and Criminal Justice, 19 (4), 286-305.

The article reports a research investigating barriers that older African Americans face in reporting cases of domestic violence. Women are forced remain in abusive relationships by traditional gender issues. The victims are generally stigmatized and this hinders reporting of cases of violence. The women are dependent on their abusive partners because they receive financial as well as emotional support so they fear being abandoned and acts of retaliation being taken against them in case they report. The trust that the victims have on law enforcement officers is yet another barrier to reporting cases of domestic violence.

Lundy, M. & Grossman, S. F. (2009). Domestic Violence Service Users: A Comparison of Older and Younger Victims. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 297-309.

The article reports a comparison in cases of domestic violence between older women of above 65 years of age and the younger women of between 18 and 64 years of age. Due to the fact that the older women do not engage in paying economic activities thus depend on public financial assistance, they were exposed to higher chances of abuse from their relatives. They were also associated with higher cases of disabilities, lack of shelter as well as special needs. They were also documented to have little acces to vital services such as group counseling.

Thio, A. (2010). Deviant behavior, 6th Ed. Ohio: Pearson Education.

The author explains the reasons attributed to battering cycles and abuse. The social profiles of offenders, cases of wife battery as well as child abuse are also discussed

Keim, J., Olguin, D. L., & Strauser, D. R. (2009). Enhancing employment outcomes for survivors of intimate partner violence: A developmental work personality perspective.  Journal of Employment Counseling, 46(3), 136-144.

The article addresses the importance of Developmental Work Personality Scale in assessing as well as counseling domestic violence survivors in successfully accessing employment outcomes. The author also highlights the high rates of domestic violence that leads to the termination of relationships while survivors engage in seeking treatment against the abusive behavior as well as the psychiatric symptoms associated with domestic violence. Survivors are actively engaged in employment programs.

Knight, C. (2006). Groups for individuals with traumatic histories: Practice considerations for   social workers. Social Work, 51(1), 20-30.

Membership in groups that address issues of trauma associated with domestic violence is associated with immense benefits to survivors. The social workers also face some professional challenges in facilitation of their duties in counseling the survivors.

Sliep, Y., Wiengarten, K., & Gilbert, A. (2004). Narrative theatre as an interactive community approach to mobilizing collective action in Northern Uganda. Families,Systems, and     Health, 22(3), 306-320.

Interactive community approach plays a crucial role in addressing cases of domestic violence. This approach is a good example of a positive working collaboration with the psychosocial workers in addressing the issues related to social health

The role of psychology in preventing, intervening and/or treating criminal offenders and victims

Psychologists must be active in preventing, intervening and/or treating criminal offenders as well as victims. Their efforts of prevention and treatment must be aimed at a reduction in occurrence of domestic violence as well as promotion of nonviolent, healthy as well as respectful relationships. This can basically be achieved addressing the changes in the echelons of social ecology which influence domestic violence including the individual, the community, relationships as well as the entire society. The reduction of risk factors associated with domestic violence musty also be addressed leading to the promotion of healthy relationships.

Specific psychological services related domestic violence involves Counseling for victim and offenders. The high level of prevalence and extent of domestic violence necessitate that therapists and counselors ti interact with the victims of domestic violence and conduct the sessions of counseling privately with the aim of increasing the sense of safety of the victim through encouraging full disclosure of any acts of violence. I8t is also important to analyze if the act of violence was an isolated case or a continuous pattern of control. The offenders must also be engaged in counseling so that cases of domestic violence can be minimized as well as the risk of an occurrence of domestic violence in the future in the existing relationship as well as a new one. The intervention with the offender should be based on the past history, criminogenic needs as well as risk of reoccurrence of the violence.  The ultimate aim is reduction of risk to the victim. Most of the programs targeting offenders are carried out within 24 to 36 weeks in groups of approximately twelve participants.

Another psychological approach to preventing, intervening and/or treating criminal offenders and victims involve cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT. This involves several treatments that are conducted on short time basis encompassing cognitive techniques as well as behavioral components. Cognitive techniques entail ways of thinking differently about a certain situation while behavioral components entail skill building as well as education to integrate new thoughts. Programs of therapy are generally administered once in every week for a number of weeks or months dealing with activating new skills as well as concepts in to practice. The use of supervision, art, drama, music, play, dance and movement can also be used successfully in intervention and treatment of victims and offenders in domestic violence (Brooks, 2008).

References

Asling-Monemi, K., Peña, R., Ellsberg, M. C., & Persson, L. A., (2003). Violence against women increases the risk of infant and child mortality: A case-referent study in    Nicaragua. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(1), 10-18.

Bonomi, A. E., Anderson, M. L., Reid, R. J., Carrell, D., Fishman, P. A., Rivara, F. P., et al.(2007). Intimate partner violence in older women. Gerontologist, 47 , 34-41.

Brooks, S. L. (2008). The use of the creative therapies with survivors of domestic violence. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher LTD.

Jasinski, J. L., & Dietz, T. L. (2003). Domestic violence and stalking among older adults: Assessment of risk markers. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 15 (1), 3–18.

Keim, J., Olguin, D. L., & Strauser, D. R. (2009). Enhancing employment outcomes for survivors of intimate partner violence: A developmental work personality perspective. Journal of Employment Counseling, 46(3), 136-144.

Knight, C. (2006). Groups for individuals with traumatic histories: Practice considerations for   social workers. Social Work, 51(1), 20-30.

Lichtenstein, B., & Johnson, I. M. (2009). Older African American Women and Barriers to       Reporting Domestic Violence to Law Enforcement in the Rural Deep South. Women and Criminal Justice, 19 (4), 286-305.

Lundy, M. & Grossman, S. F. (2009). Domestic Violence Service Users: A Comparison of Older and Younger Victims. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 297-309.

Sliep, Y., Wiengarten, K., & Gilbert, A. (2004). Narrative theatre as an interactive community approach to mobilizing collective action in Northern Uganda. Families,Systems, and Health, 22(3), 306-320.

Thio, A. (2010). Deviant behavior, 6th Ed. Ohio: Pearson Education.

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