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Introduction to Psychopathology, Essay Example

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Essay

Introduction

Psychopathology and Abnormal Behavior in Youths and the Adolescents

Many scientists today are occupied trying to investigate about the abnormal behavior or psychopathology in children and youths. But to understand it better, if you get a child or a youth who cannot eat well, has a depression, some behavior which are disruptive or anxiety disorders, then we can say the youth or the child is suffering from psychopathology or abnormal behavior. By reading between the lines, then it is easy to understand that already we have the meaning of abnormal disorder or psychopathology.

The Origin of the Abnormal Behavior in Children and Youths

There are four categories that are believed to have caused the abnormal behavior in children and youths, especially the adolescents.

Genetics and Temperament

This is a child factor that considered with the origin of psychopathology in children who are twin. This occurs in a situation where the monozygotic twins share a whole of the genetic material while the dizygotic share only half of the genetic material. This causes the abnormal behavior in children. In youths, the abnormal behavior is caused by the temperament factor of emotionality which refers to emotion instability. It is also believed that this instability has a basis factor of genetic. The research has indicated that those children who suffer of fear frustration and sadness have very high level risks of emotionality and adolescents.  We should not that any child suffering from anxiety has a fearful temperament. The one with the disruptive behavior disorder, the child is suffering from temperament to frustration while the one with a depression is suffering from a temperament of sadness (Stephen, 1992).

Parental Rearing and Modeling

The family or the parental rearing is also concerned with the etiology of the child psychopathology. How parents rear their children, whether in warm or cold rearing leads to the abnormal behavior in children. For instance the overprotection by parents to their children can cause anxiety in youths. Lack of emotional warmth and rejection by parents brings depressive symptoms while low levels of care by parents leads to behavioral problem. Although it has been difficult to know if the parental rearing leads to abnormal behavior in youths, but the scientist has proved it right. They say that the children by observing and imitating their parents behaviors. This can also cause the psychopathology apart from the abnormality (Stephen, 1992).Therefore parents should understand better on how to take care of their children and learn what their children needs or do not need. This will ensure that no abnormality will occur.

Life Events and Negative Information

It has been also noted that children who experience negative learning experiences are at a high risks of developing psychopathology. These negative events might include parental divorce, maltreatment, the teasing at school, abuses and probably the death of a prominent person. The research from the scientists has also indicated that a child receiving negative information suffers children’s fear. For instant, when a child received any information concerning a monster doll, we will find that the child will be fearful at all the time (Stephen, 1992).Children get negative information either from their parents, watching on the televisions or surfing from the internet. If we consider the children who surf for pornographic films, will have courage and develop sexual behaviors while the others who are not accessed to them will be afraid of engaging to sexual behaviors.

Society and Culture

The last category that is involved in the abnormality in youths is the societal and cultural level. For example in a country, the discrimination between the black and the white might bring a negative impact on the children. In a case of South Africa even after the apartheid rule, the black children still live in poor and hostile society while the rich children live in rich and good society with a good background. This can make a contribution to the psychological disorder. In South Africa, children who were born between 1990s are much normal which displayed much anxiety than those of 1950s. In Western countries, children and adolescent are much pleased with how the women put themselves slander and men put themselves to be thin and muscular. This might bring abnormal manifestations of body change (Stephen, 1992).

An Overview of How Abnormal Psychology Has Evolved Into a Scientific Discipline

The scientists have tried to do more research on the disorders and have tried to come up wit different ways of treating them. For the case of disruptive behavior, the scientists have noted that it can be treated through training parental rearing skills. The cognitive behavioral therapy of the child can be considered as a medicine of treating depression. The scientists continuous to explain that the impressive progress can also act as a medicine for treating children with the anxiety disorders which goes hand in hand with the CBT- based interventions. Due to the efforts made by the scientists to find for the possible cures, some of the clinicians do not take those precautions seriously. They have left everything laying in the clinics and hospitals. This has made the problem of psychopathology and abnormality to increase youths and children.

The Theoretical Viewpoints and Interpretations of the Biological, Psychosocial, and Social-Culture Models

The theoretical point of view illustrates the history of how patients displayed abnormal behavior. Frauds tries to explain a case that scientists tend to called agoraphobia. He tells a story of Hans who was afraid of the horse and did not want to go outside. This made Hans to develop fear. Hans also developed Oedipus complex, whereby he wanted to have sex with his mother. This made him to be punished by his father. Hans later developed a sense of fear against his father (Richard, 2002).

The biological point of view illustrates that the genetic make-up is one important child factor that is involved in the origins of psychopathology. Where by the genetic influence is more established in the twin study. Based on the fact that monozygotic twin pairs share everything concerning the genetic material, whereas dizygotic twin pairs only share a half of the whole genetic material.  One can determine the level of agreement and compute a hereditary factor for each type of psychopathology. For most disorders, the agreement in psychopathology is larger in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins, which points in the direction of a genetic influence. More precisely, for the three most common psychological disorders in youths, twin studies have demonstrated that about half of the whole variance in these problems can be attributed to heredity (Richard, 2002).

The social-culture point of view is explained by the socio-economic background of the children. That is, in the aftermath of the Apartheid regime black and colored children still live in poor and threatening neighborhoods, whereas white children are raised under rich and safe living conditions (Richard, 2002).While such marked differences in socio-economic background are seldom seen in Western countries, this example illustrates that a societal factor can make a significant contribution to the psychological functioning of children.

Conclusion

Since the scientists have done their part, the politicians also need to intervene to see things running well. They should motivate the clinicians to carry out their duties. The law makers should help by putting it compulsory for each family to visit any clinic around for the check up of their children. Considering this, will avoid the increase of psychopathology and abnormal behavior in youths and children. The government should take part of counting the number of children and youths suffering from the disease and take necessary steps if there is any (Maurice, 2001).

References

Richard, C. (2002). The theoretical viewpoints and interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and social-culture models. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers.

Stephen, K. (1992). Causes of the Psychopathology in Youths and Children. London: The Hogarth Press.

Maurice, S. (2001). The Scientist Intervention on the abnormal behavior. South Africa: Longhorn Press.

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