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Leader Relationships vs Corporate Relationships in Disciplining Subordinates, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

Nepotism is conventionally referenced as a collection of social and psychological processes with observed interactions with regards to friends and family members in and in the vicinity of organizations. Nepotism is the delegation of patronage due to attributes of kinship and friendship without regard of merit (Jones, 2012).

Qualitative Study                              

The study which had been performed by Ayasli&Tumer (2008) had been composed of five hundred and seventy six respondents (N= 576). The mean response scores for the nepotism – favouritism section of the questionnaire was 3.02. This inferred that nepotism had a substantial effect on job related stress. A questionnaire had been disseminated to forty seven of the respondents in the qualitative component of the study (N= 47). Twenty of the respondents participated in a questionnaire which questioned the effects of nepotism on job stress.  A five point Likert rating scale had been applied which varied from the rating of strongly disagree being equal to one and the rating strongly agree being equal to five. The qualitative component of the study served as a reliability measure of the study (Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

Quantitative Study     

Research had been performed at twenty banking facilities which operated in Northern Cyprus. The banks had been divided into two categories which were privately owned and state owned. In addition, there are eighteen offshore banking facilities. The score of 3.02 inferred that the effects of nepotism had a substantial effect on employee’s departing from the organization (Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

.Adverse Effects

The ill effects which are created by nepotism are that of the administration of human resources in organization due to the characteristics of candidates being selected for kinship and friendship. The challenge is that the workers who are recipients of the nepotism may not possess the job skills and relevant knowledge. The qualities of an organization which are affected are harmony, motivation and fairness. In addition, the practice of nepotism is the source of inefficiency in an organization along with insufficient development and training. Nepotism may create conflicts between the employee who is employed as a result of who the employee is affiliated with and the member of the staff who has been contracted as a result of job skills and experience. The practices which are derived from nepotism may cause job stress which would cause the employees to make negative comments to other members of the community about the operation of the organization (Ayasli&Tumer, 2008; Vatanen, 2003).

Industries and Review of Findings               

In the studies which had been conducted by Ayasli&Tumer (2008) and Ayasli et al. (2006) the banking and hospitality industries in the nation of Cyprus were reviewed. The organizations who would request the outcomes of studies which were conducted by Ayasli&Tumer (2008) and Ayasli et al. (2006) are those involved in the social behaviors which take place in organization and the leader – member transactions which occur in organizations (Ayasli et al., 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

Potential Peer Reviewed Interest

The editors of the magazines Social Behavior and Personality, the International Journal ofSociology and Social Policy and thePublications of the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration would be interested in the phenomenon and the outcomes of nepotism. These publications specialize in the behavioural, interpersonal and personal effects of nepotism and the effects on the employee production of an organization (Ayasli et al, 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008; Vatanen; 2003).

Topics, Subjects and Issues Involved

The subjects of the phenomenon of cronyism, nepotism and favoritism in banking operations and the hospitality sectors would be researched in the literature review (Ayasli et al., 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

Remedies for Nepotism

There are regulations which prohibit the practice of cronyism, nepotism and favoritism which has been implemented in the United States and other industrialized nations. Reduction measures regarding job stress have been implemented with regards to the physical surroundings, the designing of the tasks, the pace of the work and the work schedules with respect to alleviating the substantial employment stress for the individuals concerned. These reduction measures have been implemented in organizations in the United States and other nations. Educational programs regarding the reduction of job stress attributed to nepotism are provided for the supervisors and managers (Ayasli et al, 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008; Vatanen; 2003).

Potential Outcomes of Nepotism

The organizations which practice nepotism could be damaged by the negative comments generated by employees. The organizations which are participants in the Cyprus banking industry have been categorized as organizations where nepotism is a contributor of job related stress (Ayasli et al, 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

Reasons for Interest in Nepotism   

Nepotism is one of the causes of organizational inefficiency. A human resource manager would be interested in reviewing the characteristic of nepotism in an organization. The recognition and study of the practice of nepotism would be the responsibility of the human resource management and development sectors of an organization. The recognition and the study of nepotism in organizations would enable a better comprehension of the leader- member relationship which is present between the employees and the management of an organization (Jones, 2012; Vatanen, 2003).

Affected Groups

The groups which are most affected by the practice of nepotism in the Cyprus banking and hospitality sector are the students who are enrolled in the five universities of higher education in Cyprus. Each year, the five universities graduate thousands of highly skilled graduates. These graduates must witness the effects of nepotism and the lack of value delegated to their educational endeavours. These university graduates cannot aspire to hold many of the positions which are held in the Cyprus banking and hospitality industry. As a result, there is a substantially greater organizational inefficiency which is manifested in these industries as a result of nepotism. The students are severely affected and demoralized by the practice of nepotism (Ayasli et al, 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

Answers      

Favoritism, cronyism and nepotism are applied more than the established human resources practices in the nation of Cyprus. The banking and tourism sectors employees have preferences for hiring, rewarding and promoting their kinships and friendships. The characteristics of knowledge, skills and abilities are not considered to be as influential as the relationships in the Cyprus banking and hospitality sectors.  The part of the problem that these studies can help to resolve is the manner by which to decrease job stress for employees in organizations where nepotism is practiced (Ayasli et al, 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

Value Creation         

The value which is created by the study of nepotism can lead the human resource managers and developers to implement practices which educated the supervisors and the managers on the manner by which job related stress can be decreased among the organizational staff. This creates value in the form of greater harmony and equity within the organization (Jones, 2012; Vatanen, 2003).

Refinement of Theory

The theory of leadership and member exchange has been converted into a dyadic perspective with regards to comprehending the relationships of leaders and followers in organizations. The theory of social exchange and roles supply the main theoretical foundations for the theory of leadership and members in an organization. The problem is how to define the theory of leader and member interaction in an organization and what should be its composition (Jones, 2012; Vatanen; 2003)..

Results

The results of these studies and the review of the problem statements which have been derived from the study could enhance the organizational harmony and fairness. The process of losing employees and retraining new employees is a source of substantial cost to organizations. The reduction of the loss of employees as a result of job related stress caused by nepotism would be a cause of substantial savings in organizations (Ayasli et al, 2006; Ayasli&Tumer, 2008).

References

Ayasli, H., Barik, A, &Ekiz, E. H. (2006). The effects of nepotism on human resource management: The case of three, four and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 26(7/8): 295- 308.

Ayasli, H. &Tumer, M. (2008). Nepotism, Favoritism and cronyism: A study of their effects on job stress and job satisfaction in the banking industry in Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(9).

Jones, R. G. (2012). Defining a psychology of nepotism. In R.G. Jones (Ed.), Nepotism in Organizations (pp. 1- 9). New York: Routledge.

Vatanen, A. (2003). Leader- follower relation in an international Chinese context. Publication of the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 115

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