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Leukemia in Children, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

Disability research paper Leukemia in children

Definition of diagnosis

Leukemia is a form of growth (malignancy) or cancer in bone marrow in which case a production of numerous white blood cells occurs which are abnormal and poorly functioning. There is a common similarity of leukemia to other health impairments with common variation based on specific type of condition. However, some common symptoms are evident with cases of leukemia in children. They include lack of energy and tiredness, paleness of the skin, breadth shortness especially at the time of a physical activity, sweating at night, mild fever, joints and bones aches and low count rate of the white cells (Kevin, 2009).

Once the signs indicated above are suspected in a child, it is recommended that healthcare professionals be contacted to conduct an examination aiming at identification of the cause. Diagnosis of a condition of leukemia requires a comprehensive blood count by the doctor in which case, particular interest is accorded at determining the amount of white cells present in blood. A comprehensive diagnosis of particular leukemia type involves a comprehensive examination of the blood plus additional tests.

Age of onset

The onset of leukemia is indiscriminate in as far as age is concerned although most cases are noted at ages of above sixty years.

Prevalence

Over 230, 000 individuals in America have been documented to be sufferers of one of the four common leukemia types. Available statistics indicate that, the most prevalent leukemia type afflicting under the age 19 years children is the Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/ohi-leukemia)

History of knowledge of this disability

The historical background of duration of disability in a victim is based on many factors. The specific leukemia types, the response of the victim to treatment, the stage of the disease and the mode of treatment are the most important determining factors. Other important factors such as the side effects associated with treatment, BMT donor availability; participation of the central nervous system in addition to additional body sites,  infections development along with secondary cancers, the age of the victim, the nutritional status of the victim, emotional along with mental health of the victim and the  overall health of the victim (Kimberly & Susan, 2010).

Causes

The bone marrow of body of the victim produces white cells to offer defense to any type of infection. If the white cells are produced in excessive quantities, development of leukemia is the result. Leukemia is manifested as cancer allied to the bone marrow as well as the blood. All the common types of leukemia have a cell originating from the bone marrow.

Sub types of leukemia

Acute leukemia is evident in the situation that the affected cells are unable to function properly due to immaturity. The proliferation of the cells is more rapid and consequently the progression of the condition is also rapid. Chronic leukemia is another sub type which is characterized by immature cells but their functioning is normal prior to their division and accumulation. Consequently, the progression of this type of cancer is much slower and may be latent for a long period. Lymphocytic leukemia is yet another sub type which is felt by the cells which are responsible for the formation of the body’s immune system. The most prevalent sub type of leukemia is the Acute myelogenous. Other lesser known subtypes also exist and Acute lymphocytic leukemia is the sub type most prevalent in children (Nancy, 2010)

Primary symptoms

All common types of leukemia share some symptoms in common which include chills, fever, weight loss, poor appetite, regular infections as well as sickness, general weakness of the body and weakness, sweating, swelling of the lymph nodes, enlargement of the liver and also the spleen, breadth shortness, tenderness of the bones, bleeding and bone pains. The particular symptoms and the degree of severity vary depending on the sub type of leukemia.
Possible secondary symptoms or complications

Leukemia is also associated with secondary complications history of blood disorders such as plastic anemia and other disorders which are associated with antecedent hematologic. Likewise, illnesses affecting the bone marrow have a greater predisposition to the development of this condition. Other vulnerable groups include those people with particular abnormalities of the chromosome, with suitable examples being the Down syndrome as well as the Klinefelter’s syndrome. Also in this category includes the people whose genes expressions are abnormal, an issue that is attributed to translocation or changes in the chromosomes. Familial syndromes may also increase the chances of acquiring leukemia which have a close relationship to gene mutations. Lastly, another important factor worth mentioning is the transmissible cancer syndrome which is a predisposing factor towards the development of AML (ICON Health Publications, 2008).

Therapeutic approaches and medical management

Treatment of leukemia is variable based on the actual category of leukemia that ius affecting an individual. However, irrespective of this issue, the goal of treatment of leukemia is reducing the load of malignant cells and this has reached an advanced stage at current, success that is attributed to research in this field

Prognosis

Every category of leukemia is classified based on the level of acuteness and the specific strand of blood cell that has been affected.

References

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Leukemia available at             http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/ohi-leukemia accessed on October 7, 2011

Kevin Y. U., et al., (2009). Factors Associated With Residential Mobility in Children With        Leukemia: Implications For Assigning Exposures. Annals of Epidemiology, Volume   19, Issue 11, Pages 834-840

Kimberly, J. J. & Susan, E. P., (2010). Childhood cancer clustering in Florida: Weighing the      evidence. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 493-494.

ICON Health Publications (2008). Acute Leukemia – A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, &      Annotated Research Guide to Internet References. ICON Health Publications

Nancy, K.,  (2010) Childhood Leukemia: A guide for Families, Friends & Caregivers 4th Ed.     Patient Centered Guides.

Appendix

Annotated bibliography

ICON Health Publications, (2008). Acute Leukemia – A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography,& Annotated Research Guide to Internet References. ICON Health Publications

A variety of terminologies as well as expression in as far as acute leukemia is concerned is contained in this publication. Users are given updated information on the use of internet resources.

Nancy, K.,  (2010) Childhood Leukemia: A guide for Families, Friends & Caregivers 4th Ed. Patient Centered Guides.

The information contained in this guide gives a precise detail of the medical information regarding prevalence of leukemia and the potential options of treatment. It also accounts for practical advice that facilitates for coping with the condition and how to lead a simple life despite being affected by this condition.

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