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Mapuches in Chile, Essay Example

Pages: 3

Words: 927

Essay

Introduction

The essay is going to discuss the Mapuche people. The Mapuche are South America’s most populous indigenous tribe (Daher, p286, 314). Moreover, 1.4 million of them were alive at the beginning of the century. In the Central Valley of Chile, south of the Bobo River, most Mapuche people live, and there is a smaller group in the west-central province of Neuquén. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the Mapuche were a nomadic people who lived in small agricultural settlements all across the Central Valley (Daher, p286, 314).

Body

Mapuche activists are calling for more self-determination, acknowledgement of their rights, and the repatriation of ancestral territories (Daher, p286, 314). With the help of international humanitarian organizations, Mapuche groups in Chile continue to demand that indigenous peoples be recognized under the Chilean constitution. As a consequence of Chile’s counter-terrorism laws, which led to the arrest and detention of multiple Mapuche officials in the south, the country and the world’s media have noticed. Additionally, hunger strikes by inmates have exerted pressure on the authorities (Pérez, p258-269).

Since multilingual and multicultural education is still an important part of official policy, Mapuche groups have had some success in their demands (Daher, p286, 314). There are just a few terms in the native Mapuzungun language because of a lack of funding, which implies that many ideas aren’t fully completed. According to a large number of Mapuche people, recent developments have been more theoretical than real.  Mapuche groups in the countryside and the cities are participating in various initiatives to improve both the teaching process and the material taught. In Chile, Araucana is still the poorest area, and Mapuche people are among the most impoverished, illiterate, and malnourished citizens (Zambrano, p166-185).

The Mapuche conflict has continued to escalate despite government pledges to settle it, and indigenous peoples have been subjected to violence and human rights violations. Several Mapuche people have been wounded or murdered in police raids and violent assaults on communities inland conflict regions. In contrast, other Mapuche people have been unjustly jailed and assaulted while in police custody (Pérez, p258-269). Many young Mapuche males have perished due to excessive force used by police officers. At the time, Jaime Mendoza Collio was gunned down by security forces during a peaceful demonstration 2009. Investigations by the police department have exonerated the officer-involved (Pérez, p258-269). It wasn’t until 2013 that the Highest Court concluded that the requirements for self-defense hadn’t been satisfied. The policeman was sentenced to two years on probation, and the military court pronounced the officer guilty and sentenced him to five years imprisonment.

Security personnel and government officials continue to abuse their positions of power. The use of excessive force by the police to disperse indigenous protesters has occurred multiple times. Indigenous Peoples’ Development National Corporation was taken over by Mapuche during the Mapuche Land Rights Struggle in Bajo Malleco, Chile in 2015. Violent techniques were utilized to disperse the throng, including many youngsters (Zambrano, p166-185).

Legislative and senate seats are not evenly distributed among the Mapuche population of Chile. A new political party was formally formed. The objective of Mapuche self-rule is essential (Zambrano, p166-185). With a pro-autonomy stance, the Wallmapuwen party seeks to reclaim “Mapuche land” (Wallmapu) in Chile and Argentina’s original area, where the vast majority of Mapuche people still reside. However, the pace of change in the direction of more acclaim is sluggish. Francisco Huenchumillia, the Governor of Araucana, was ousted by the government in 2015 for publicly pushing for Mapuche rights (Zambrano, p166-185).

Women in my country experience the act of gender inequality. The women citizens in my country get paid less than males for doing the same work. Boys have more access to higher education than girls do in rural regions. In addition to underage marriages, domestic violence is a significant incidence. Even yet, it’s good to know that progress has been made in the fight against gender inequality and for improved circumstances for my country women. Gender equality is a hot topic in my country (Daher, p286, 314). To achieve gender equality, it’s essential to examine how people’s gender roles influence their social acceptance. To achieve gender equality, it’s essential to examine how people’s gender roles influence their social acceptance. Motherhood is favored in my country, where more than half of women over 15 are mothers (Daher, p286, 314). That implies that getting a job is no longer a top priority. Women in partnerships with males are often financially reliant on their spouses, making them more susceptible when women cannot stay in an abusive relationship due to various financial situations, which has become a problem.

In a man and a woman relationship, males are generally expected to shoulder the whole financial load (Zambrano, p166-185). Due to gender stereotypes such as “guys shouldn’t express their thoughts or exhibit weakness,” this puts a great deal of financial strain on males already (Zambrano, p166-185). Even if she works as much as her husband, a woman will be expected to perform the household independently, regardless of how much time she spends at the office. As a result, women in the workforce are more likely to be overworked than males (Daher, p286, 314).

 Works cited

Daher, Marianne, Andrea Jaramillo, and Antonia Rosati. “Opportunities and tensions in supporting productive intercultural activities: The case of urban and rural Mapuche entrepreneurship programs.” Culture & Psychology 27.2 (2021): 286-314.

Pérez, Camila, and Giuseppina Marsico. “Return to the ancestral land: The semiotic map of the Mapuche people.” Culture & Psychology 27.2 (2021): 258-269.

Zambrano, Alba, et al. “Construction of an intercultural preventive strategy of alcohol use in rural Mapuche communities: A community‐based participatory research.” Journal of community psychology 49.1 (2021): 166-185.

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