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Open Access to Scientific Data, Dissertation – Literature Example

Pages: 24

Words: 6678

Dissertation - Literature

Open Access to Scientific Data: Towards Increasing Transparency and Accountability of Governments

Overview of the Open Data Movement

Critics of modern governmental policies believe that the government should reveal more information regarding its actions. While democratic nations were set up in a manner that was meant to encourage this information to be shared, government officials have decided that some information should be hidden from the public in order to promote national safety (Open Government Guide, 2013). In particular, the federal government believes that it is necessary to hide information that could pose a threat to national security from the public. In recent history, this has caused conflict concerning the balance between national safety and the individual rights of citizens. In many situations, a failure to share data is a violation of basic constitutional rights. Many individuals who have attempted to share information deemed to be sensitive by the government have been arrested and tried for treason. However, a portion of the populace strongly believes that the information shared by these individuals should be heard. Therefore, there is a need to determine whether the open data movement would enhance the government by allowing for a greater extent of transparency and accountability. On the other hand, governments believe that it is important for them to protect some information, as this can enhance the efficacy of military operations (High Earth Orbit, 2009). Ultimately, however, research has indicated that open data is more valuable than detrimental.

The concept of open government data promotes an understanding that individuals could freely use any of the information collected and analyzed by the government (Yannoukakoua et al., 2014). A commonly held belief is that citizens of a country have the right to the information collected by their governments for use and distribution. However, this has not always been the case. Activists are therefore working to demonstrate the value of open data in society to alter current government practices in a manner that will encourage a greater extent of information to be shared with the public (Callon, 1986). A few politicians, however, are working towards ensuring this data is protected (Courmont, 2012). Ultimately, government knowledge belongs to the public and should be made readily available to those that wish to access it.

What is Open Data?

The open data movement is broadly defined as the right that individuals have to access information in addition to their ability to share it freely (Hilbert, 2013). Others define open data as the right to use this information (Auer et al., 2007). Since freedom of expression is a right guaranteed by the Constitution, proponents of the open data movement believe that in order to express themselves freely, they need to be properly informed. Others believe that they need to be able to use the information they are provided in any manner. In both cases, an understanding of this information will allow them to share their thoughts and ideas. The concept of open data stems from the belief that data cannot belong to a single individual. Rather, knowledge belongs to the public as a whole. It is therefore important for governments to be aware that information regarding international and local intelligence is collected for the sole purpose of public benefit. When this information is not shared, it is used unfairly to support the government rather than the people (Berners-Lee, 2011).

While open data is typically associated with the information collected by governments for national safety, it is necessary to consider that the information extends to the release of scientific data. Some individuals believe that preventing this information from being released is detrimental to the well-being of society because it prohibits scientists from being able to incorporate new knowledge into their research (Open Government Guide, 2013). The government can prevent scientific data from being shared in two different ways. In the first instance, the government could prevent the release of data from projects that are being conducted by military scientists. In the second instance, the implementation of patent laws prevent information generated by scientific research from being readily usable by others, which hinders the ability of individual scientific disciplines to progress (Murray-Rust, 2008).

The controversy over open scientific data stems from the belief of scientists that all data generated in scientific research belongs to the scientific community as a whole. On the other hand, publishers believe that they are able to regulate who is and who is not able to access this data. However, the scientific community believes that this information should belong to them and the public (Magee et al., 2014). As a consequence, publishers copyright the information that is published in their journals, and allow researchers to access the information for a fee. This prevents the rapid evolution of science, as many researchers are forced to utilize the information from journals they already subscribe to, which prevents them from having a complete understanding of their research topic as it pertains to what is currently known in their field in addition to the gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. This is a major hindrance because the individuals who generate information, the scientists, have no power over the information that they generate. If these individuals wish to make their information available to the public, they must transfer the rights of the information to the publisher. However, this in turn prevents the information from being readily accessible to their colleagues. This generates the question of who the data should belong to. The publisher believes the rights of scientific can be owned based on who pays to release the information, which causes a conflict with regards to ownership and dispersal of information.

Information ownership creates many challenges. In terms of scientific data, ownership works to challenge the validity of the information that is presented. In one specific scenario, scientists challenged the validity of an article entitled Antioxidants in Berries Increased by Ethanol (but Are Daiquiris Healthy?). While scientific consensus was certain that some of the information contained within the article was erroneous due to graphical misrepresentations, the article’s publisher, Wiley, defended the recorded data (Murray-Rust, 2008). The author of the article, a PhD student named Shelly Batts, wished to edit the information to rectify the error. However, to do so, she needed to ask Wiley for permissions to edit her own project. If Batts had not needed to provide Wiley with the rights to her research, this editing process could have been more efficient and this mistake would have been rectified before influencing additional research projects.

While many scientists attempt to share their data online for free, many find it difficult for their work to be found using this open access format. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the way in which information is shared as it relates to societal impacts. If information can be shared easily, advances in science and other disciplines could be easily made. However, an inability to access this data hinders the ability for progress to be made.

Why do we need an open government?

It is evident that the ability to share information on a wide scale is a beneficial practice. However, many individuals agree that doing so is not useful if it excludes the sharing of information that is relevant to a majority of the public (Fountain, 2001). Others believe that an open government would be too costly of a process to work in reality (McClean, 2011). As a consequence, many individuals call for the establishment of an open government. An open government is defined as a belief that states that the citizens of a nation should have the ability to access documents and proceedings of government decisions and political actions (Creative Commons, 2013). The concept of a democracy is based on the idea that individuals should be able to actively participate in their government. It becomes easier for people to critique the ideas of their leaders if they have an enhanced understanding of the decisions and the steps made to make them. This is especially important because these decisions have an impact on the daily lives of civilians, who therefore have a right to know about these ideas. Politicians in some nations disagree with this spread of information because it will present them with a political disadvantage (Fountain, 2001).

In a modern sense, an open government is needed because it provides citizens an easier way to communicate with their leaders. In many city and town governments, leaders allow their constituents to contact them and provide opinions on legislation by filing forms online. In this manner, leaders become aware as to whether the decisions they are making are supported. This allows the voice of the people to be more powerful, as only the politicians who act as fair representatives will be re-elected (Savoldelli et al., 2014). Previously, constituents were able to voice their opinions to their representatives in paper or in person, but this method is outdated and it is more challenging for information to be collected in this manner. As a consequence, more people are drawn to participating in their government if it is openly accessible, which is a promoter of democracy. This enhanced access will likely contribute to a shift in power between politicians and their constituents (Fountain, 2001).

Ultimately, the establishment of an open government has a wide variety of advantages. In particular, transparency would allow the people’s trust in the government to be restored. In the past, there have been many events that shocked the American people, including information regarding torture of war criminals and tracking used by the government in order to monitor civilians. Many individuals were outraged that the government had lied about their treatment of war criminals and these terrible acts had gone unreported until recent times. Such a failure to report information undermines the democracy that the government tries to promote. Likewise, many citizens were angered about the government’s need to monitor civilians and became extremely worried about this violation of rights and how the information would be used. This situation indicated the need for the government to show accountability for their decisions.

The three branches of the federal government were established in order to ensure accountability. However, it is impossible for the judicial or legislative branch to make the executive branch accountable for their actions if the executive branch’s actions are not fully known. To ensure that this is possible, no action should be taken by the executive branch prior to notification to the public. Even in cases where this is deemed necessary for military success, it is important to make the proposed involvement known in a manner with a level of detail that allows the mission to still be completed successfully. Furthermore, reports of such missions must be made available after their completion in order to maintain the trust of the people in the government. This will ensure that no political decisions are made in a manner that will lose this trust, which will enhance the ability for the opinions and beliefs of the citizens to be involved in democratic participation. It appears that an open government will be a more successful government.

Relationship between Open Data and Open Government

Many people support the development of a relationship between open data and open government. Ultimately, an open government would allow for the establishment of a mutual relationship of trust between the politicians and the people they serve. While it would be challenging to implement a fully open government immediately, researchers have determined effective ways that governments could decide which information should and should not be released to the public. The relationship between open data and open government is therefore dependent upon the financial and political repercussions of sharing information (EPSI Platform, 2013). The EPSI Platform report has shown that nations with frequent internet usage will benefit from the implementation of data. Critics of this plan believe that the implementation of this data will be detrimental due to the associated costs (ODDC, 2013).

Studies have shown that increased government transparency results in decrease corruption. For governments to ensure the data that they control is readily available to the public, it will be necessary for these institutions to build the necessary infrastructure to allow for the data to be used (Davies et al., 2012). There are two stages of information release that open governments must establish to implement the necessary infrastructure. The first is the provision of public sector data in a readily accessible form, such as through internet portals. Second, permissions must be granted to the public for data reuse. Today, this data is used by many sectors including the government, business, and citizens. The ability to openly access this information therefore indicates that many different groups of people will benefit, which is the purpose that a democratic government was established in the first place. Therefore, to ensure that democratic principles can be carried out, it is necessary to allow for the promotion of open data through an open government. However, others argue that the current system is adequate to ensure democracy and that such changes do not need to be made (Hilbert, 2013).

A primary means by which open data and an open government can be related is when data is made available by the government in a manner that allows it to be readily reused by the public. This is also associated with the need for the government to make information that is not produced by them available to the public as well (Berners-Lee, 2011). For example, the government could facilitate the transfer of scientific data to the people for use. Currently, the government issues a partial report of this information by compiling the abstracts and access information for scientific articles in a National Institute of Health index referred to as PubMed. However, accessing this information would be more advantageous if it included direct access to the articles it mentions. It is apparent that the government has the resources necessary to share this information quickly and freely, but current information laws prohibit these articles from being accessed publicly. Many people will benefit if open data is promoted by the government because it will allow the speed with wish innovations are made to increase. Yet, others argue that access to just a portion of this information, which is currently the case, is sufficient (Murray-Rust, 2008).

Importance of Scientific Data with the Public

Scientific data is highly important to the public because it directs the ways in which the average individual lives his or her life (Magee et al., 2014). In particular, scientific innovation contributes to medical knowledge that allows a wide range of treatments to be developed for different illnesses. Individuals that support the publishing industry believe that making scientific data publicly available would be detrimental to the industry (ODDC, 2013). However, making this data public serves more positive impacts than negative. Developments in science contribute to a working knowledge of chemistry and physics in a manner that allows for basic life improvements to be made. For example, knowledge in these fields contributed to the development of modern technology such as television and computers. Even more importantly, scientific developments can contribute to the resolution of major world problems based on an increased understanding of science (Kauppinen et al, 2011). An example of this includes the elimination of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in order to slow down the rate of global warming. An additional example of this is the development of new technologies that can be utilized to explore outer space.

Open data in science will allow for the ability of researchers to freely use scientific data to incorporate into their own research studies. Science is conducted in a manner in which new information must build upon information that had previously been generated. A failure to comprehend the data generated by scientists that proceeded a similar work is highly detrimental to the field, as scientists may waste resources by repeating work that has already been accomplished. A prominent example that demonstrates the benefit of information sharing in science is the results of the human genome project. After this project was completed, researchers gained an enhanced understanding of human genes which allowed them to continue functional studies of the human genome in addition to applying the information learned to the understanding of other organisms (Contreras, 2013). These extensions of the original project would not have been possible if the results of the human genome project were not made available for public use.

Science as a whole would benefit if all governments agreed to share the information learned by their scientists, as the production of scientific knowledge is not a standalone procedure. Creation of projects like the World Data Center would enhance scientific collaboration which would allow scientists across the world to tap into a diverse array of knowledge bases (National Research Council, 2008). In addition, the accessibility of this information will allow researchers to have a greater understandings of studies in which the findings have been refuted, which will allow scientists to manage their time more effectively. Such an enhanced knowledge would allow many world problems to be solved. It will also further the world’s ability to educate the youth to prepare them to create further knowledge that will continue to make lifestyles easier and easier.

Benefits and Justifications

Individuals who believe in open data and open government cite that there are many positive economic implications of promoting this policy (Omidyar Network, 2014). Reasons that are cited for this include increased potential for productivity and more efficient use of existing resources. Critics argue, however, that open data is not enough to ensure that these changes will occur. Open governments must also be implemented. Studies have shown that open governments that support open data will allow the gross domestic product (GDP) of countries to rise significantly. As a whole, this policy change will influence the growth of available jobs, decrease the ability for politicians to be corrupt, and support infrastructure and energy. While this report was based on the Australian economy, this information is applicable to the United States and many other countries around the world.

An openness of data creates the need for new jobs because more individuals are needed to process this information and to build upon it. Furthermore, the efficiency that this process creates contributes to the development and maintenance of infrastructure because it will allow the public to gain a greater awareness of the structures that need to be altered. On this front, there are currently many problems in the United States. There are not many resources that are being put towards the maintenance of important architecture such as dams and bridges (American Society of Infrastructure, 2013). However, much of the public is not aware that there is not routine maintenance on these structures and that there is an immediate safety concern. Allowing the public to be aware of this information poses a potential solution to the problem because private companies will be able to offer a contract to the city and federal governments to ensure the safety of infrastructure. Because the lack of funding being put towards these projects is not openly announced, such interventions are not currently possible.

Allowing the country to fix its infrastructure problem will also create new jobs, as there are many failing structures present that require large amount of individuals to inspect and rectify the problems that have been found. This will also save the country money in the long run, as these preventative inspection measures will be less costly than the damage caused to create a new structure to replace the old when it fails. It is also necessary to consider the money in damages the government will need to issue to resolve related damage related to lost lives if a bridge were to give out or environmental damage related to the breaking of a dam. Politicians have historically avoided maintenance care because they prefer to provide funds for new projects because these allow them to remain in the public’s limelight. If the public were made more aware of these situations however, it would be possible for the public to get involved and demand the repair work be done. Because the public is not currently able to be involved in government practices to this extent, there is an extreme imbalance in the power of the people and the power of elected officials. To resolve this discrepancy, the people must be provided with information so that they are able to be accurately represented by lawmakers.

A major benefit of open data is the related concept of abolishing corruption. Currently, many politicians are able to engage in actions and decisions that benefit their political career, their political party’s standing, or their own financial interest. Ultimately, this is possible because politicians are not required to report all of their actions to the public and are required to be only minimally accountable to their fellow lawmakers. As a consequence, it is not clear why certain decisions are made and who these were meant to benefit. Furthermore, many conflicts of interest currently exist among politicians, and politicians tend to vote for decisions in a manner that will positively benefit their friends or personal investments. A policy of open data and open government would prevent such corruption from being possible. Ultimately, an open government would require the public to be aware of the biases that politicians implement in their decision making process, including institutions with which they have investments or personal ties. If the public is aware of these biases, they will be able to vote for their leaders based on this open understanding of their actions. Furthermore, this knowledge would prevent these politicians from being able to act for selfish reasons, as it would make it highly unlikely that they would be re-elected in the future. Open government will allow constituents to have a clearer understanding of the character of the individuals they are voting for, which will ensure that the people are more adequately represented by their elected officials.

An open data policy would tie in closely to the ability for law enforcers to ensure that business practices remain ethical as well. Of particular importance, open data with regards to corporations will mean that large companies will have to release more than basic data concerning their operations. Currently, financial crimes are common because it is easy for company executives to alter or misreport information, allowing money to be transferred to workers without the knowledge of shareholders. While white collar crimes such as this one are occasionally caught, this usually occurs after major financial damage has occurred to the company. A prime example of this is the economic catastrophe that occurred following the Bernie Madoff scandal. Madoff implemented a Ponzi scheme that removed billions of dollars of assets from the stock market. In an attempt to rectify the financial damage he caused, the government implemented a $64.8 billion bailout program that allowed many of the affected businesses to remain open. If this had not been done, the American economy would have experienced a small recession. This crime would have been easily noticeable if Madoff had been required to provide the American public with more information. This problem extends to the business that Madoff nearly bankrupted; if more extensive financial data had been available, the scheme would have been detected at an earlier time and the government would still have ahold of $64.8 billion (Tobak, 2010). Therefore, it is clear that open data would positively influence economic practices, which will in turn strengthen the finances of the country as a whole. By preventing financial crimes through the implementation of open data, we can assure that a country will remain financially strong.

Many of the aforementioned scenarios demonstrate the benefit of engaging communities in the decision making process. The removal of government corruption as a consequence of the implementation of open data has many extensions with regards to economic improvement and better representation of the populace. If citizens are more informed, lawmakers will be forced to understand the information as well and will be in a better place to determine how this data will influence their decision making with regards to the wishes of their constituents. Currently, this cooperation is not possible because the public is not aware of many of the issues it believes that there should be knowledge of. To resolve this problem, government, scientific, and financial data must be made readily available for public access.

Barriers, Risks and Constraints

Currently, there are many barriers, risks, and constraints that pose a threat to the potential for the implementation of open data. The major barrier to the implementation of open data is the fact that the government and the people are currently unaware of the negative implications that doing so can offer (National Research Council, 2008). Another view is that people are aware of these barriers but are unable to work towards their removal (ODDC, 2013). This lack of understanding spans from the local to federal government. There are currently many unknowns with regards to how releasing this data will alter governmental practices or whether there will be a significant advantage after effort is put in place to ensure that information can be readily accessible.

Research has proposed that the major element of open data that serves as a barrier is the actual access of information. It is believed that ensuring the proper access to datasets and promoting the correct use of these datasets will be challenging (Conradie et al., 2014). As a consequence, an important factor to consider is that many members of the populace will not have the statistical knowledge necessary to interpret the released data. Therefore, it is possible that misunderstandings from its release will arise. However, it is important to consider that the general public could use additional means to come to an understanding about this information. This process would be made easier if the institution responsible for data creation were to offer an unbiased explanation regarding its meaning so that members of the public have the potential to understand how it could be used in addition to whether analyzing it further would be meaningful.

Another barrier to open data is the fact that even when information is available to the public, many individuals are not aware that the information exists. As a consequence, the ability to allow for open data excess requires that knowledge about the information be promoted. Rather than expecting individuals to seek the information they wish to obtain, it is the responsibility of governments to inform their constituents in a manner that allows them to be aware that the information exists. Factors that prevent the information from being known include technical issues, the want to keep matters private, and the currently existing laws. Even when organizations are able to make information available to the public they are not necessarily willing to or allowed to. Furthermore, economic factors are an additional consideration.

It is necessary to consider than even when a government is in favor of open data access, it may not have the resources available to ensure that this is possible. For example, it may require more financial resources than is reasonable to implement the technology that is needed to ensure that information can be distributed quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it may become necessary for governments to raise taxes or allocate a large portion of its budget in order to create the ability for its citizens to have open access to information. Ultimately, for open access to be possible, governments must have the financial ability in addition to the desire to allow their citizens to quickly access information in order for this knowledge to be dispersed.

Governance and Compliance

In practice, the implementation of open data access and open governments has been successful. However, this has not been proven at a national level in many instances. In pm situation, an open data project is currently underway in Chicago. This project was implemented primarily to allow the exchange of scientific data and to promote civic engagement projects (Kassen, 2013). The foundation of this project was built on the belief that the implementation of governmental interactive services in addition to the establishment of governmental open data and blog platforms, will lead to government transparency and accountability in addition to an increase in participation from members of the general populace. The Chicago project was deemed to be successful, although a variety of improvements are still needed. When these findings were published three years after the project had initiated, there were over 800 data sets available for public use. This number continue to grow today. This is a positive result because it demonstrates that there are many individuals that support the concept of open data and are willing to contribute their findings to the database.

Another aspect of the Chicago project that marks a high level of success is that many businesses and non-for-profit organizations contributed to the development of the open data base. This has allowed local government data to be more readily available to the individuals who wish to access it. However, it is important to consider that this project is still in its preliminary phase and all desired information is therefore not readily available. Despite this, a wealth of scientific, demographic, and political information has become available through the internet resources generated by the creators of the project. As a consequence, the project has allowed for the identification of community needs, promoted civic engagement, and challenged the negative consequences of open data that have been proposed by opponents of this plan.

Ultimately, the implementation of open government will ensure compliance on both the behalf of citizens and the elected officials. When the people have greater involvement in the creation and implementation of laws, they will be more likely to find these rules just and therefore be more likely to follow them. Furthermore, open data will require elected officials to be more compliant with regards to the wishes of the public rather than taking action on their own accord. If their constituents are aware of all political decisions, rationale, and associated background information, lawmakers will be forced to work for the benefit of the people. This will allow government to run more smoothly, as there will be a mutual understanding between lawmakers and the people they govern, which is indicative of a true democracy.

Analysis of Major Open Data Policies around the World

While Chicago’s experimentation with open data policies have proven to be successful, similar projects are operating on a larger scale across the world (Omidyar Network, 2014). It is necessary to consider however, that all open data and open government initiatives have not been successful (Open Government Guide, 2013). It is important to consider that information has the ability to create power imbalances, and many small countries have integrated this knowledge into their operations. As a consequence, these smaller governments have taken advantage of their ability to access the internet in order to gain information from other nations and to share it freely with their own citizens. In many instances, these governments report data regarding political decisions and operations to ensure that their governments are refined in a manner that supports the population as a whole. As a result of this, the term e-government has been coined, and can refer to a variety of data access that countries provide to their citizens online (Simon et al., 2014). Most countries offer their citizens some form of open data access, although some programs are more comprehensive than others.

Dutch governments are particularly well-known for their support of both open data and open government. However, the policies that regulate open data are different for the local and national governments. In the Netherlands, the government has been operating in a manner that supports open data since the Dutch Freedom of Information Act was passed in 1980 (Zuiderwijk et al., 2014). Therefore, this government had an open data system in place before the widespread use of computers were established. Under this paper model, administrative documents and business plans were readily accessible to citizens who requested to see them in person. In the present, this system has been recreated on the internet to allow these documents to be accessed through more modern means. As a consequence, the Dutch government has been able to continuously support the ability for their citizens to request and receive government information in a timely manner.

The Dutch model has been successful in part due to the type of government that runs the open data program. Unlike many other democracies around the world, the Dutch government is loosely structured and local governments have more power in many cases than the central government. However, this appears to be an ideal model for an establishment of an open data system, as the government welcomes transparency. It would be possible to mimic this model in other governmental settings provided that the central government is thoroughly accepting of its duty to its citizens. In reality, this should be possible for all nations that claim to be a democracy, but it has been shown that politics have the ability to get in the way of making open data a reality in some instances.

Other countries, such as Australia, are currently implementing policies to ensure that information generated by a variety of sources could be used freely by the public. While the government has stated that it will keep some governmental matters private, the central government is attempting to maintain the trust that its citizens have in their governing body by summarizing which information is available to the public in addition to how it can be accessed (NSW Government, n.d.). Furthermore, specific policies are being developed that will direct how data could be reused after it has been published initially. The government hopes that developing new procedures for the transfer and sharing of information will allow for easier access, which will involve the people in the government more significantly in New South Wales.

Many nations are implementing plans in a manner that is similar to the one established in Australia. In particular, Canada has made major strides to ensure that its people have open access to information in addition to a transparent government. Canada was one of the first nations to take a step towards implementing open government policies in 1977, which was marked with the creation of the office of the privacy commissioner, whose responsibility it was to ensure that the private rights of each individual was protected. Official legislation regarding open government began in 1983 with the implementation of the Access to Information Act, which allowed federal access to information legislation. As of 2011, the Open Data Pilot Project began and allowed citizens to have access to approximately 300,000 datasets at a Canada hosted website, data.gc.ca (Government of Canada). More than 100,000 individuals have made use of this data, indicating that a continued extension of this project will contribute to the value of this resource. In addition, government departments are offering summaries of their actions online for public access in order to allow Canadians to be more aware of the actions taken by their elected officials.

Although the Canadian government is socialist and the United States government is a democracy, it would be valuable for the United States and similar democracies to adopt the policies set forth by Canada. It would be reasonable to create an easily accessible website containing the datasets and to promote their availability. Furthermore, these efforts could be supplemented by requiring the provision of action summaries from the cabinet chairs of the federal government in addition to the actions taken by senators and members of the House of Representatives. It would be beneficial for these practices to extend to local governments as well, which is necessary in order to ensure that locally relevant data is accessible.

Due to the many advantages that an open data system has the potential to offer, many different governments around the world have set up websites providing their citizens with information regarding governmental operations. These governments include Nepal, Brazil, and Nigeria, among others (ODDC, 2013). Ultimately, however, the extent to which information should be shared in addition to the policies that should regulate this information exchange are currently under debate. It would therefore be beneficial for world leaders to carefully study the open access pilot programs that are occurring around the world to serve as examples of implementation. These plans should then be modified in order to meet the unique needs of each country. Unfortunately, not much data has been generated with regards to open data access in the 21st century, but this gap could be filled by conducting the relevant research. There is much reason to believe that governments would benefit from promoting open data, and this benefit could only be reached if nations around the world begin to make this change and observe the consequences of this decision over time. It is imperative that the people of the world urge their nations to make these necessary changes, as it will allow for the immediate improvement of world governmental systems.

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