Orientation & Ethics, Essay Example

The lesson covered career development as an imperative discipline in shaping career decision making.

Career development is a process that incorporates all other factors such as psychological, sociological, educational, economic, physical that aid  in shaping ones career over lifetime (Brown, 2002, p. 37). This process revolves around basic concepts such as vocation, career and career awareness. Career development is concerned with human development, whereas career counseling focuses on the choices of one’s career goals. Good career counseling helps to raise one’s awareness on how to make smart life choices. Career development started way back in the 20th century by Frank Parsons, who was a humanitarian and founder of vocational guidance. Theories of career development emerged in the 1950’s among which were the Ginzberg’s and super’s theories of developmental career guiding and counseling. The trait-and- factor career theory deals with the individual traits that have the ability to match with the occupations (p. 38). Moreover, in super’s lifespan approach, career development is ongoing, continuous and orderly in people’s abilities that differ in different occupations that help in career development.

Consequently the social cognitive career theory deals with the different types of choices made the decisions, and the issues around us. According to Brown (2002, p. 40) in the study conducted by Elder and Orland, 1995 state that an individual should be sensitized to make an occupational choice and vocational development. This is because people continue to make occupational choices and decisions as they move through their careers. In addition, individuals should assess their abilities, interests and personal characteristics and use the available information so as to make good career decisions that will enhance the development.

Class 6: Ch 12-13

The lesson covered two broad aspects namely; testing and assessment, and Research and evaluation

Testing and Assessment

Under testing and assessment, the lesson focused on the various techniques used in research assessment, their rational and important consideration issues under population testing and assessment. Under testing, assessment criteria such as informal assessment, personality testing, ability testing, and clinical interviews are evaluated. Evaluation of these factors enables the development of valuable background on clients that enable response rationalization. Moreover, the lesson revealed that test measures such as measures of central tendency, variability, and derived scores enabled the establishment of data relationships and variances. In addition, the lesson revealed that tools such as test-Retest, Split-Half and internal consistency techniques are ideal in testing data validity and reliability. In this, the lesson highlighted that legal, professional, and ethical issues ought to be considered (Patton, 2002, p. 39).

Research and Evaluation

The lesson focused on research rationale, types, data testing and analysis, and quality evaluation. With respect to research rationale, it established that research not only helps answer pertinent societal questions, but also builds on existing subject knowledge. Moreover, the lesson revealed that research is broadly categorized into qualitative and quantitative research. While as qualitative research focuses on varied result causative factors, quantitative research focus on a single cause for each obtained result. In testing data under qualitative research, the lesson highlighted inductive analysis and coding as common methods. On the other hand, quantitative research data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were listed. Conclusively, the lesson offered that to control research quality, control measures both the formative and summative evaluations should be instituted. Additionally, the lesson emphasized that multicultural, legal, and professional issues must be considered (Patton, 2002, p. 432).

Class 7: Ch 14 -15

The lesson covered social and cultural issues in counseling, and the professional qualities of a counselor when administering therapeutic interventions to clients from diverse cultural backgrounds.

The United States enjoys diverse languages, culture and people. In this respect, social and cultural issues in counseling exacerbate as counselors who do not possess the knowledge and skills attend to such clientele who in most cases come from minority backgrounds. A minority group in this case is used to discern people who are vulnerable on the basis of their social, racial, religious and economic backgrounds. Such scenarios pose a stumbling block to counselors as patients from these backgrounds are often misunderstood and misdiagnosed. It is imperative for the counselor to possess quality knowledge in multicultural counseling in order to understand symptoms before an effective therapeutic intervention is effected.

In order to eliminate the chances of racial attitudes and prejudices that might impede the counseling process when dealing with patients from diverse cultural backgrounds, it is imperative for the counselor to respect the client’s cultural background before initiating the therapeutic process. In addition, counselors should develop professional multicultural competency in addressing clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Such can be achieved by not only understanding people’s language and worldviews, but also developing a conceptual model that is effective when dealing with people from diverse cultural backgrounds. The counselors possessing the right attitudes and beliefs is an effective tool of motivating clients from different cultural backgrounds such as the Native Americans, Hispanics and also the gay who are placed in the minority category (Nelson-Jones, 2002, pp. 295-296).

Working with people from diverse multicultural groups means that the counselors have to be flexible and continue learning skills because each client is treated uniquely from the rest. Therefore, the strengths of the counselor through effective therapeutic interventions should be manifested through effective positive feedbacks from the clients.


Brown, D. (ed.) (2002). Career Choice and Development, 4th Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from <http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=U0SZRvNz4S8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=career+development&hl=en&sa=X&ei=P1BGUsiGFobi4QTByYCoBw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=career%20development&f=false>

Nelson-Jones, R. (2002). Essential counseling and therapy skills: The skilled client model. London: Sage. Retrieved from <http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=62dPTBzfnYIC&pg=PA308&dq=multicultural+counselling+-+counsellors+develop+skills&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xlRGUrncMdGKswboi4Ao&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=multicultural%20counselling%20-%20counsellors%20develop%20skills&f=false>

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd Edition, Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage. Retrieved from <http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=FjBw2oi8El4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+and+evaluation&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CF1GUp7KJqTf4wSKloH4Dg&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Research%20and%20evaluation&f=false>