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Outlawing of Female Genital Mutilation, Essay Example

Pages: 2

Words: 607

Essay

Introduction

Female Genital Mutilation, (FGM) or female circumcision/ genital cutting is a ritual commonly practiced in Africa, the Middle East as well as Asia. In societies that practice FGM, the practice of circumcision is perceived to be an obligation on a religious perspective. It is also a rite of passage, a way to control sexuality and a measure of hygiene before marriage (Allen, 2000).

FGM entails all the procedures leading to the removal of female genitals, partially or wholly or an alternative form of injuring the genital organs of females for reasons that are not medical oriented.

Thesis Statement

FGM is a proceed of violating basic human rights and absence of informed consent. It is consequential to chronic pain, persistent infections dermoid cysts development, infertility, higher risks of death to newborns as well as damaging other body organs

Background

The female who are exposed to FGM are affected by cases of sexual dysfunction along with dyspareunia, meaning that their sexual intercourse is associated with pain. However, according to majority of researchers, it has been documented that FGM may not cause any harm to the female sexual desire (Shell-Duncan & Hernlund, 2000).

No Argument

According to the opinions of opponents, the act is nonconsensual eliminating a tissue that is healthy and a cause of sexual pleasure.

Important Terminology

Female Genital Mutilation is used to give a distinction from circumcision, an act which applies to men to stress on the level of severity that is associated with the act. Local terminologies applicable are tahara as applied in Egypt, tahur as applied in Sudan and bolokoli as applied in Mali among others (Shell-Duncan & Hernlund, 2000).

Support Thesis

Eliminating female genital mutilation among societies is one of core initiative of observing human rights across the planet.

Argument Points Supported up by the Literature

Majority of organizations dealing with human rights perceive FGM as an act of violating the human rights. FGM proponents disagree with the appropriateness of the term “mutilation” as they perceive it to prop up the notion that the act results to human rights violation.

Against Thesis

FGM is a practice that has been taking place and should continue to be performed.

Alternative Argument Points Supported by the Literature

FGM has been perceived as a means of making the female to be clean, chaste and well prepared to be married. Women who do not undergo the ritual are not socially respected and are linked to promiscuity. The virginity as well as fidelity of females is guaranteed while their sexual pleasures have been deadened. Due to the perception of the rite among most people, many females succumb and ssuffer the pain in addition to further health complications (Nussbaum, 1999).

Rebuttal of Those Points With Pro Arguments

Americans have put in place a procedure that is more obscure that deals with cosmetic surgery for the newborn children suffering from ambiguous genitalia. The operations have been likened to FGM and have been condemned to be psychologically as well as physically harmful (Gollaher, 2000).

Conclusion

According to the estimates of World Health Organization (WHO), more than ten years are required to cut down the prevalence of FGM and its eradication can only be achieved after three generations. Much time and effort is required to achieve the transformation of awareness among the societies with entrenched rituals which has significant value to local culture despite being dangerous as well as demeaning to the eyes of other people.

References

Allen, P. L., (2000). The Wages of Sin: Sex & Disease, Past & Present. Univ. of Chicago Press.

Gollaher, D., (2000). “Female Circumcision,” Circumcision: A History of the World’s Most Controversial Surgery. Basic Books.

Nussbaum, M..,  (1999). “Judging Other Cultures: ACase of Genital Mutilation,” Sex & Social  Justice. O UP.

Shell-Duncan, B. & Hernlund, Y., (2000). Female “Circumcision” in Africa. Lynne Rienner Pub.

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