Back to School Offer

Get 20% of Your First Order amount back in Reward Credits!

Get 20% of Your First Orderback in Rewards

All papers examples
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)
HIRE A WRITER!
Paper Types
Disciplines
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)

Paradigms in Health Research Paper, Essay Example

Pages: 6

Words: 1530

Essay

Abstract

There are numerous definitions informing characteristics of paradigms in research. Incollectively summarizing the conceptual framework an understanding that they are windows through which perceptions emerge becomes inevitable. With specific reference to research these perceived ideological predispositions encompass practices in various disciplines and schools of thought. Precisely,paradigms in research can be described as a “network of coherent ideas” (Clarke & Klegg, 2000), which classify researchers according to thebody of knowledge they employ and methods used to inform evidence-based practices. This discussion explores the way researchers apply these paradigms in health research.                                                                       

Introduction

Toba Bryant (2012) of the Center for Research on Inner City Health, St Michael’s HospitalToronto, Canada offered perceptions relating paradigms in health research. This pertained towards developing a new paradigm for research on urban women’s health in the Canadian culture. This researcher expressed a paradigm shift towards approaching the phenomenon of women’s health from a perspective of focusing on the environment’sinfluence as a social determinant ofhealth (Bryant, 2012)

The main argument regarding this paradigm shift was thatwomen’s health in urban centersishighly influenced by the quality of a variety of social determinants. These stretch across income, housing, employment among many other variables that impact one’s social life expression. Further assumptions are that these same social determinants are the prevailing forces that forges methods of social organization within a society as well the distribution of social services among minority groups such as certain categories of women in the society (Bryant, 2012).

It is within this framework of paradigm in health research that I would embark upon exploring two research projects and how researchers have articulated paradigms to inform methodology, structure research questions, create instruments to investigate phenomena, employ strategies for interpretation of data and design  techniques to arrive and conclusions.

Analysis of Academic Articles

Article 1

Fehler, K. Kennedy, L. McCargar, L. Bell, R., & Ryan, E (2007). Postpartum Dietary Changes In Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 31(1), 54-61.

Identification of the dominant paradigm

Epidemiologicalparadigm application encompasses biological programing; adult risk factor approaches and a life course position in explaining chronic illnesses. Sociological paradigms embody three theoretical perspectives. They are symbolic interactionism at the micro level; functionalism at the macro level and conflict theory also at a macro level of social phenomena interpretation(Slattery, 2003).

Political economic paradigms embrace applying theoretical perspectives to methods of financing of government projects, social services and the way tax payers money is diverted into expenditure. Their strength is derived from associating concepts with political science, law and economics(Clarke & Klegg, 2000).  Ultimately, human rights paradigm espoused by the United Nations is aimed at asserting ‘accountability, developinguniversality and non-discrimination, indivisibility and participation’ (United Nations, 2012).

After reflecting on the foregoing characteristics of paradigms studied in class it is my opinion that the researchers in the above article inculcatedan epidemiological paradigm in their methodology. Specifically, it could be cited that they used the life course position in explaining a chronic illness. This approach combines biological programing with adult risk factors in establishing a link between life course medical diagnoses with perinatal conditions. The study concerning ‘Postpartum Dietary Changes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus’ is highly suggestive of this paradigm intervention.

Identifying Research Questions

Research questions according Creswell (200) ought to be the point of focus for the researcher. It is through this mechanism that the researcher has the ability by applying methodology to paradigms prove hypotheses or nullify them (Creswell, 2009). In this article research questions can be discerned as embedded within the hypoothesis and objectives located in the abstract. They can be worded as ‘does nutrition education in the diagnosis of GDM result in dietary changes?’ The other implicit question is, ‘if there are dietary changes is it sustained during postpartum?’ (Fehler et.al, 2007).

When trying to establish the accuracy of designing these questions in relation to the paradigm applied, again referencing Creswell (2009), research questions are expected to make theoretical assumptions in the framework more obvious by indicating the researchers’ pertinent concerns in conducting the study (Creshwell,2009).

The dominant paradigm identified for this study is epidemiological.Even though there were no distinct research questions, they could be identified within stated objectives and the beginning of the article. Essentially, the specific aspect of  the epidemiology paradigm adapted, focused on linking biological programing with adult risk factor in determining a life course position of a chronic illness.

In analyzing the stated objectivesre-worded as research questions, life course is depicted as the ‘dietary changes’ concept. Biologic programing is acknowledged within the concept ‘sustained during postpartum.’ The adult risk factor is ‘gestational diabetes Mellitus’ (GDM). Based on these assumptions clearly the researchers did address the epidemiological paradigm when designing objectives within the implied research questions.

Article 11

Kelly, C., &Booth, G (2012). Diabetes in Canadian Women. Women’s Health SurveillanceReport

Identification the dominant paradigm

The dominant paradigm informing this study is political economic. In the very first sentences of this article these researchers referenced the huge economic costs of diabetes mellitus on Canadian health care system. When applying political economic paradigms a researcher is expected to build a relationship in the methodology inclusive of financing government projects, social services and the way tax payers money is diverted into expenditure. From the onset they established their concerns regarding health care costs linking it to prevalence and complications of the disease.

Identifying Research Questions

The research questions in this report were very difficult to identify even though the methodology clearly pointed toward a literature review of case studies relating the prevalence of diabetes and its political economic implications on the Canadian health care system. It can, however, be deducted from the discussion that perhaps, it could be, ‘what are the social determinants of diabetes mellitus among Canadian women?’ How does the prevalence of Diabetes mellitus affect health care expenditure and quality of life of Canadian women?’

In relating these questions to the political economic paradigm they do not reflect the obvious concerns of the researchers because at the end of this report costs were not discussed. Also, a relationship relating the actual costs of treating diabetes among divergent categories of Canadian women cannot be identified. However, political connotations emerge implicitly in relation to aboriginal Canadians who seem at risk due to their political insignificance in the social structure. Therefore, theoretically research questions cannot be deemed entirely consistent with the political economic paradigm.

Discussion of Research Approaches

In discussing how these two different research approaches illuminate the health topic distinctively, it must be understood that while the focus disease is, diabetes mellitus, in the femaleCanadian social environment, two unique aspects were explored. First,diabetes mellitus was conceived from an epidemiological paradigm and in the second studypolitical economic.

Fehler (2007) and her counterparts through a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative analysis highlightedbiological programing relating mothers’ responses and reactions to nutrion. The next study illuminated the socio economic impacts of diabetes on the quality of life among Canadian women. These researchers utilized a literature review qualitative analysis. The two distinct approaches one using primary data  and the other secondary expressed interrelationships among diverse categories of women and their predispositions of adhering to control of the disease (Kelly & Booth, 2012) (Fehler, 2007)

Strengths and weaknesses of research paradigms in relation to topic

Clearly, the strength of adapting epidemiologicaland political economicparadigmapproaches for explaining nutrition in gestational diabetes and prevalence effectsis the researchers’ ability to assume complex ways of interpreting the phenomenon. It encompassesclassifying various biological, social, economic and psychological factors. This is undertaken through establishing an understanding of how independently, cumulatively and interactively diabetesmellitus affectsadult physicallife over time (Slatter, 2003).

A notable weakness when adapting a single paradigm in explaining a phenomenon is the limitation of generalizing across theoretical perspectives toward associating cultural paradigms. It inhibits extending explanationsclarifying other aspects of the disease.In this case discussions were enclosed in nutrition adherence andprevalence incidencesof diabetes mellitus. The researcher had to articulate arguments within the boundaries exposed by the paradigms to maintain methodological coherence inthe data analysis process(Slatter, 2003).

Conclusion

If I were to adapt a paradigm for researching diabetes mellitus it would be sociological.This study would encompass a theoretical framework coinciding with either a macro or micro perspective of diabetes mellitus beyond its medical boundaries. Precisely, symbolic interactionism approach toward explaining data would be applied. Also, it would be informed by research questions, ‘what are the effects of diabetes mellitus on social life?’ ‘How does a diabetes mellitus diagnosis influence one’s social relationships?’

It would differ from the two studies because the fist paradigm focused on nutrition from an epidemiological viewpoint. No questions were posited for addressing how the nutritional impositions affected the food culture regarding compliance during the postpartum. In the second article when researchers advanced arguments relating political economic impacts of the disease, no account was taken about the sociology of illness and diabetes mellitus itself.

References

Bryant, T. (2012).Towards a New Paradigm for Research on Urban Women’s Health. Canadian Scholars Press.

Clarke, T., & Clegg, S.( 2000). Changing Paradigms. London: HarperCollins

Creswell, J. W. (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Fehler, K. Kennedy, L. McCargar, L. Bell, R., & Ryan, E (2007). Postpartum Dietary Changes In Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 31(1), 54-61.

Slattery, Martin (2003). Key ideas in sociology. Cheltenham : Nelson Thornes.

Kelly, C., & Booth, G (2012). Diabetes in Canadian Women. Women’s Health Surveillance Report

United Nations (2012), Human Rights Policy. United Nations

Time is precious

Time is precious

don’t waste it!

Get instant essay
writing help!
Get instant essay writing help!
Plagiarism-free guarantee

Plagiarism-free
guarantee

Privacy guarantee

Privacy
guarantee

Secure checkout

Secure
checkout

Money back guarantee

Money back
guarantee

Related Essay Samples & Examples

Multinational vs Multicultural, Essay Example

The main difference between a multinational and a multicultural organization is that a multinational operates in several countries while a multicultural has individuals from diverse [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 378

Essay

Prevent terrorist strikes on American soil, Essay Example

Goal, Objectives, and Strategies The Department’s goal is to protect the homeland by thwarting terrorist threats and implementing emergency plans. These are the Department’s top [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 412

Essay

Science and Technology and Nation-Building, Essay Example

Science plays a pivotal role in technology. The combination of science and technology (S&T) results in the development of new knowledge used to improve human [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 768

Essay

Plato’s Portrayal of Socrates and the Historical Socrates, Essay Example

Socrates, the Athenian philosopher, changed how philosophers thought about the world. However, modern audiences believe that Socrates did not write any of his ideas down [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1285

Essay

Ambiguity, Essay Example

The New Task I am Proposing My proposal is a promotion at work. I am a Business Development Associate at Universal New York, NY. My [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 278

Essay

Narratives That Shape Our World, Essay Example

The context and the values in the text Othello by William Shakespeare have shaped me in perspective through the main character Othello. I perceive life [...]

Pages: 6

Words: 1574

Essay

Multinational vs Multicultural, Essay Example

The main difference between a multinational and a multicultural organization is that a multinational operates in several countries while a multicultural has individuals from diverse [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 378

Essay

Prevent terrorist strikes on American soil, Essay Example

Goal, Objectives, and Strategies The Department’s goal is to protect the homeland by thwarting terrorist threats and implementing emergency plans. These are the Department’s top [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 412

Essay

Science and Technology and Nation-Building, Essay Example

Science plays a pivotal role in technology. The combination of science and technology (S&T) results in the development of new knowledge used to improve human [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 768

Essay

Plato’s Portrayal of Socrates and the Historical Socrates, Essay Example

Socrates, the Athenian philosopher, changed how philosophers thought about the world. However, modern audiences believe that Socrates did not write any of his ideas down [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1285

Essay

Ambiguity, Essay Example

The New Task I am Proposing My proposal is a promotion at work. I am a Business Development Associate at Universal New York, NY. My [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 278

Essay

Narratives That Shape Our World, Essay Example

The context and the values in the text Othello by William Shakespeare have shaped me in perspective through the main character Othello. I perceive life [...]

Pages: 6

Words: 1574

Essay

Get a Free E-Book ($50 in value)

Get a Free E-Book

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!