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Plastic Electronics, Research Paper Example

Pages: 16

Words: 4337

Research Paper

Abstract

In whichever area of application the plastic electronic has proven to be the most attractive for both the passive and  active roles carried out by different electronic devices through their compatibility with many of the devices throughout, low cost in their processing and their capability to be easily functionalized in the synthesise to afford the desired performance attributes (Shoptaw, 1996). Structure therefore and attributes must be studied and their factors taken, since in return will always affect the performance of the device. With this therefore the growth of sensible organic materials and related device technology for plastic electronics must be studied and the relationship between material structure and process performance discussed.

Introduction

The world and everyone in general is trying his or her best to try and transform the world from harsh and unfavourable condition of living and working on. Therefore it has been on the front line for everyone to keep up with the trend of inventing and coming up with more simpler, reliable and cost effective technologies to cater or replace the existing ones. This issue has not been left out in the area of changing out the mode of operations of certain devices to a more faster and reliable way that is so much cost effective and more so reliable to the parties dependent in it. Good devices should be deliberated with materials that are light (Charlene, 1998).

This research paper tries to explain the theoretical, simulation, analytical and numerical analysis of the world’s translation to the adoption of the plastic electronics to the benefits of the users and the world in general in place of others. The plastic electronics are being adopted to replace and take the place of inorganic electronics since plastic electronic uses carbon based polymers and diminutive molecules as compared to the inorganic one that uses conductors such as copper or silicon and hence turning out to be more effective and cost friendly as compared to the inorganic conductors used in the past. The research still tries to evaluate and study the ways and means in which the transformation from the inorganic to organic electronics have been sidelined and challenges that have arose and discouraged its expansion and implementation in the market.

Theoretical Explanation of Plastic Electronic

Plastic electronic is a theoretical term used to explain the electronics that uses or is based to on semi-conducting organic polymeric materials that are usually in solution form. This makes it possible for the plastic electronic to dump materials onto a surface using preservative or printing techniques. Therefore the plastic electronics have many applications for which they have the possibility to present an aggressive or greater mix of novel presentation and the manufacturing economic. Plastic electronics have their ability to attract printing technologies since they generate light weight and vigorous electronic at low cost on great area and still have flexible substrates (Charlene, 1998). All this combination has lend to the manufacture of electrical and electronic devices which are light weight and flexible on very cheap paper or flexible films. The application of this technique of plastic electronic has all been led to practical use as a result of the development of functional electronic materials, well defined structural, chemical and physical properties that can be produced or processed with printing from the liquid phase into a mechanically flexible format. Electronic procedures and circuits can therefore be made by printing resolution based materials onto bendable and rigid surfaces. Layers with dissimilar functions are printed, one at a time and with a very enormous accuracy at a micro-scale onto a surface referred to as the substrate. By building up layers and using stabilizer printing procedures, collective with coating and patterning processes, an electronic device is produced. The device might be a photovoltaic cell, an emissive or reflexive display, a battery or any combination of components since the innovation of plastic electronic is coming up alongside wider developments in plastic electronic and thin film electronics. It is not in any reason or the other to define printed, plastic and organic electronics as different terms. This is because they all use the same material placed, processes and machine architectures. This is very truly evidence from the fact that some organic materials are made from small molecules while some organic materials are made by use of long chains of repeating molecular units.

The molecular units are also elucidation – based, that makes it potential to print them, whereas diminutive molecules characteristically have to be deposited using vacuum based processing techniques. This leads us to the point that printed electronics materials are typically made from polymers in a solution format, and can be deposited using inkjet, screen printing or other types of printing techniques. The other explanation is because plastic electronics engrosses the enclosure both throughout printing or some other technique of one or extra organic apparatus inside their transistor or other electronic devices (Charlene, 1998). The conducting of electrodes by organic devices is made possible by the proper use of inorganic components such as nano particles of metals in an organic solution based for conducting electrodes. The semiconductor devices of the optoelectronic are becoming more advantageous due to the increase in demand of the high efficiency computing, reception and the transmission of the information. The simulation and the modelling of most of the mentioned devices are much important in more critical way when it comes to the understanding device engineering and their limit of performance and the system design. The simulation of the optoelectronic device will be critical in the current micro-electronic industries like the simulation of the electronic device. The SILVACO ATLAS simulation comprises of the primary task that will come up with the exact microscopic models that will be computationally efficient when it come to physical processes that posses very wonderful roles in determining how the optoelectronic device performs. The processes comprises of the carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering, plasma heating, carrier capture by and escape from quantum wells. Their interest is also to see that the individual process model has been put together to form a single simulation tool that will be used for the optical device simulation. The tool will help in studying the temporal dynamics and the transverse modes of the vertical cavity layers that produce the lasers, which in turn is used to asses the accuracy of the model and the simulator.

Analytical Analysis of the Plastic Electronics

The technology to fabricate integrated circuits requires combination of active transistors with suitable interconnect at a pitch dense enough for the application envisioned, on large area with and with sufficient yield. It is therefore very crucial to take a very clear and defined demonstration in the manufacture of circuits with  more complexity around 1000 transistors, as all the applications of plastic electronics requires will need this kind of complexity. Good results of this kind have been achieved in the area with digital circuits comprising 650 and 1888 transistors and the work continuously goes on well. With a good boost in incorporation scale it is becoming more and more to expand tools for the realistic reproduction and optimisation of the circuitry (Shoptaw, 1996). A facilitating reason is to develop the appreciative of device and circuit manoeuvre and getting the actual consciousness of the connection among the two. All this can be obtained by or through via in depth transistor modelling, circuit simulation and clever qualitative analysis.

Advantages of Plastic Electronic

There are many reasons as to why plastic based electronic should be appealing. Devices completed from the organic materials produce very small heat, and characteristically use lesser amounts of power contrasted with lifeless devices. Still the printing of a device on to a lithe substrate, such as plastic or paper, is recommended to fundamentally enhance the possibility for new moveable and wireless submissions such as electronic paper and roll up display.

Disadvantages of Plastic Electronics

Conventional manufacture of displays and electronic components requires large expensive vacuum-based equipment, with sheet layer depositions in batch processing techniques involving multiple steps at high temperatures. All this therefore requires that the predictable producers to have great assets savings and large stuff costs. In difference to this, printed electronics is cost effectual given that materials are only placed in the essential areas and can be completed with fewer steps at lesser temperatures appropriate for flexible, plastic substrates. Uninterrupted roll-to-roll practices then become potential, devoid of the want for extremely individual creation atmosphere. Materials and industrialized costs will be lesser and high customisations have to be reasonable. Printed electronics consequently establishes the opportunity for a colossal variety of original applications that are light weight, healthy and with construction costs appropriate for non-refundable electronics.

Modelling Of the Plastic Electronic

Organic semi-conductor represents a very important new prospect in the thin film electronic devices. This in return has enabled the development of very new devices which can be processed under very low temperatures with greater speeds and with potentially lower cost, than traditional devices in their categories (Frishy, 1996). The main difference between the plastic electronics and the inorganic electronics is that plastic electronic semi-conductors are held together by van der Waals bonds, which are relatively weak and require only a small energetic investment to make and break. Therefore this straight intermolecular bonding makes it straight forward to use thermal evaporation and solution processes to deposit the material uniformly over large surfaces. These procedures consequently turn out to be directly overconfident to be appropriate to great exterior facilitating the applications, that needs momentous area exposure and low invention costs. Solution processing can use printing systems to prototype material, drawing leading to important throughout and cost improvement. There are many possible requests plastic semiconductor based organization, and every one has its own suitable material set and manufacturing confront. This study paper will look at a number of business-related and pre-commercial apparatus manufacturing approaches and in meticulous examine throughout these development mutually the materials and equipments concerned in the development. This is accompanied by a number of perspectives that must be considered in the manufacturing in particular.  Cipher is used in cryptography for the algorithm purposes. The algorithms include the encryption and the decryption which includes of well defined series of steps that can be followed as a procedure. But sometimes we get the word cipher in a non technical usage which means a code. But this was distinguished from codes when it came to the classical cryptography. To put this information clear, they were used to operate the substitution depending on a large code book that linked characters or figures to a word or phrase. For instance, the code UQJHSE could mean the same as the sentence “Proceed to the following coordinates.” But when it came to cipher, the UQJHSE could mean a plaintext or any other information that a sender would wish to transmit to a receiver (Frishy, 1996). That was according to cipher, while when it comes to the encrypted form it was known as the cipher text which had all the information concerning any of the plaintext but was unreadable mostly to the human  or any computer without any mechanism to decrypt it.

In any operation of the cipher, there must be a key which is always a piece of the auxiliary information. On the other way it can also be termed as a crypto variable. The procedure of the encryption depends on the key that is used to change the details of the algorithm operation. It would much difficult to decrypt the resulting cipher text into a plaintext which is readable if a person does not have any information concerning the key. In most modern, they can be categorized in two ways. The first is block ciphers and a stream ciphers. The block cipher means working on the blocks of symbols which are usually of a fixed size while the stream cipher means working on a continuous stream of symbols. The second category is the symmetric key and the asymmetric key algorithms. A symmetric key indicates whether the key is used in both the encryption and the decryption while the asymmetric key means if each has its own key. If the key is symmetric then the key must be shared by the recipient and the sender in exception of anyone else. If the algorithm is an asymmetric one, then it means it is the opposite of the other one. The device that is used for the computation purposes and makes the direct use of phenomena of the quantum mechanical which includes entanglement and superposition to do any operations on data is known as the quantum computer. They are different from the traditional computers which are based on the transistors. The quantum properties are useful in such a way that they can be used to perform operations and represent data on these data.  A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model which is also considered to be the universal quantum computer. The experiments have been carried to show that the quanta computational were executed on a small number of quantum bit. A number of the government and the military funding agencies are supporting the quantum computing research for the development of the quantum computers for all the civilians and the national security reasons which includes the cryptanalysis. If the government and the private sectors put much concentration on the building of the large scale of quantum computers many problems that cannot be solved by the current classical computers will be solved. The quantum computers on the others side do not allow the computational of the functions that are not theoretical by the classical computers.

The classical computer system contains a memory that is made up of the bits. Each bit might represent a one or a zero. On the other hand, we can get that a quantum computer represents a qubits, which means that a single qubit represents a one, zero and any quantum superposition of these. For instance a qubit may be in any states of 4 superposition and the three qubits in the 8 superposition. Therefore a computer with n can be in a superposition of 2n   a different state continuously unlike the normal computer that contains only one of the 2n at any time. The quantum computer functions by manipulating the quibits with a sequence of the quantum logic gates which is called the quantum algorithm. The implementation of a quibits for a quantum computer can start with the use of the particles that have two spin states that is written as the Down and the Up. But in the normal case, it is always written as AND, OR AND. The diagram below gives an indication that the qubits can be in a superposition of all the classically allowed states.

Qubits are made up of the controlled particles that that normally trap them and make them to move from one state to another. Considering a classical computer that is operating with a 3-bit register, we find that the possible distribution will be based over the 23 =8 different 3- bit strings 000, 001,010, 011,100, 101,110, 111. If the computer is deterministic, therefore it means that it is in the exactly of the state of the probability 1. But when the case comes that the computer is probabilistic, there is a possibility of the computer being in any one of the number which might be on a different state. These probabilistic states can be described by the eight non negative numbers like a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, where a = 000, b = 001, c = 010 and so on. The note should be taken that the probabilities have been restricted that they can only sum up to 1 only. The ket is an eight dimensional figure vector that is used to demonstrate a 3- qubit computer. In this case, instead of the sum adding to 1, the squares of the coefficient magnitudes are the only ones that equals to 1. For instance, | a | 2 + | b | 2 + … + | h | 2. The representation of the states are in form a wave function that makes the coefficients to in a complex numbers that if summed up together will undergo an interface. This gives us the difference concerning the quantum computing and the probabilistic of the classical computing. If the three qubits is measured, then the result will be an observation of a three- bit string. The probability of measuring the string will always equal the magnitude of the same string when squared. If we consider the earlier example that we read state 000 = | a | 2 and 001 = | b | 2 and so on. Therefore the quantum state with the coefficients a, b h will give the classical probability distribution of | a | 2, | b | 2… | h | 2 . When it reaches this state we can conclude that the quantum state collapses to a classical state. To understand it better, the 8- dimensional vector can sometimes be identified in a number of different ways, depending on the bases that has been chosen for the space. The basis of the 3- bit strings 000, 001… 111 is called the basis of the computational which is frequently convenient, but some of the bases of unit-length, orthogonal vectors may be used as well. The computational basis for a two dimensions that is also known as the single qubit is = 1, 0 or = 0, 1, but there is another basis that is common are the eigenvectors of the Pauli – x operator AND. In a practical basis, we can always think that the recording of a classical state of n, a 2n-dimensional distribution which always needs the exponential number of real number can take the system as being exactly one of the n– bit string. But we always do not know the one to do that. Quantum automatically, this is not the case, and all 2n composite coefficients require to be set aside of to see how the quantum system advances. For instance, a 300-qubit quantum computer has a state explained by 2300 which is an approximate of 1090 composite numbers, more than the number of atoms in the recognizable universe.

Literature Review on the Historical applications

In early days, the word cipher meant zero. It was used by each region like the French- cifre, Latin- cifre and Arabic- صفر sifr. Cipher was being used in encoding of numbers of any decimal digit.  The concept of zero was not applicable in the roman number system therefore it made it to be cumbersome and confusing. Many people on the other hand take it as part of. On the other side, some of the people take knowledge as something that needs to be shared among the sons and daughters or within an organization since no one knows what hold tomorrow. They take this sharing as natural. Sometimes times people do not like their fellow friends or relatives to have the knowledge they posse. Let us look at some of the reasons as to why this selfishness of knowledge takes place. The first reason is that may be there is a manager who is the owner of the same job. The manager finds it difficult may be to share the top secretes of the company’s trade. If he or she tends to share it with the others, then the company might loss the trade secretes. Sometimes people do not like to learn new things from others but just to discover those things on their own. This will means that if a person does things on his or her own, no sharing of knowledge have taken place. An individual might have knowledge on a certain problem within an institution but refuses to share it with other colleagues for getting that one day the same problem will face others when he or she will not be around. What should be understandable is that innovation comes as a result of combining knowledge from different individuals and the organization boundary. Others do not like giving what they have since they do not trust one another. This comes as a result that when a person who has acquired knowledge passes it to another person, there will be no acknowledgement that he or she got the knowledge from someone else. The person takes the knowledge his or her own, which in return triggers the knowledge sharing. When someone has knowledge there area always many clients waiting for him or her to go and fix a certain problem for them. What I mean is that such a person never has any time to sit down with some of his friends to share hat new idea he or she has. The main reason the person gives is that he have a number of deadlines for the company to meet. May be an organization is comprised with people from different cultures, who tend to understand their own language. It causes lack of communication within the same organization and there will be no knowledge sharing since the individual might understand the knowledge on his or her own mother tongue. On another case, a person might understand something very well practically, but due to some of the psychological problems, the knowledge cannot be passed from one person to another.

How to overcome the barriers of knowledge the Plastic Engineering

The situation can be dealt with accordingly by basing ourselves on the three Cs of knowledge sharing. These three Cs include Culture, Co-competition and Commitment. To change a culture is not that simple. Therefore it is something that takes a lot of time. We can look at culture as one of the programming mind that differentiates one group from another. Sometimes it is easy to change someone’s culture. But before this, the fundamental underlying layers need to be addressed to be able to change the actions of a person. This change can be done through a group or any person who is ready to do it individually. Let us look at some of the activities that a group or an individual might use to plan or induce change. The first plan is to put an organization into questionnaires and interviews. This type of plan is known as the Culture audit which is helpful in getting out the differentiation within what is expressed as the desired culture and what is done. It is also advisable for the organization to check on the small cultures that conflict with the overarching goals of an institution. The people who find themselves hoarding knowledge needs to be challenged improper but avoiding the knowledge rage. Another case comes when other people like the newcomers are always discriminated on what they tend to share with others. For knowledge sharing to succeed every person should be involved and whatever such a person discusses with others should be taken with much care and can be used in the decision making of an organization. The group must identify those individuals who are the role models concerning the knowledge sharing and engage them with other groups through even celebrations. The group or individual should have a meeting regularly to improve and understand the internal process. Such kind of process is known as the development of organization session which is used to address the means of acquiring the successful outcomes. The rewards should be organized for those people who are well behaved and take most of their time sharing knowledge with the others. This is a kind of motivation where by every person will be competing for the reward hence there will be the automatic circulation of knowledge sharing.  Apart from culture, many of us are always eager to excel on something they do which can come as a result involving other people to know much. This takes us to the second three Cs of knowledge called Co-opetition. Therefore in anything done, there must be a competition which should be done on a healthy way. A person or organization must have several underway competing projects which must be followed by a mechanism to the exchange of knowledge and challenge. For the case of Co-opetition, a manager can come up with a competition regarding the Knowledge Champion of the Year which should be in attendance by everybody or any other prominent person having a word of encouragement on the advantages of knowledge sharing. The organization must set goals against external competitors instead of competing against other individuals. The last C that we need to have is Commitment. The organization needs to put its commitment to change, culture, and challenge, compete and to cooperate. It does not matter what the leaders of an organization do but without commitment to the knowledge sharing then the production will be always as low as their expectations. The value of Knowledge Management communicates openly to the efficacy with which the managed knowledge permits the members of the organization to deal with the situations affecting today’s life and effectively foresee and make their future which depends on what the individual brings with them to the situation.

Conclusion

Within every organization there must be a correspondence among the supporting infrastructure, objectives, process, structure and people. By this we can get that culture goes hand in hand with the roles and responsibilities. Above all, let the obvious losers of such competitions share in achievement, rejoice what they have accomplished, and make them feel that they are also part of the team that have won The plastic electronics are being adopted to replace and take the place of inorganic electronics since plastic electronic uses carbon based polymers and diminutive molecules as compared to the inorganic one that uses conductors such as copper or silicon and hence turning out to be more effective and cost friendly as compared to the inorganic conductors used in the past (Rooney,1960).

Reference

Rooney, M. (1960). The World of the Plastic Engineering and computational. New York: Macmillan Publishers.

Charlene, K. (1998). The Solution to the Plastic Engineering. Business Week, March 28. pp. 16.

Frishy, W. (1996). Computer and computing technology. Journal Airline Industries. 1996; 31(12):177–202.

Shoptaw, K. (1996). Environmental Impact, pollution, Wastes, past practices of the plastic Engineering. Journal of Environmental Treatment. 1996; 13(6):483–486.

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