Policy Analysis, Essay Example

Level of Organization Change

            Chapter 6 explains the three different levels of organizational change: individual, group and larger systems based on the processes, responses and methods for introducing gradual and dramatic changes.

            Individual Level Change

The authors explain that the major changes in the organization result in training, change of position, development programs and coaching. The main focus when introducing change on the individual level should be on gaining commitment, developing the individual’s skills according to the new requirements and effective communication patterns that highlight the benefits of the change for the individual. Likewise, selection and recruitment models also have to be adjusted to the changes in the organization’s needs and priorities. Individuals usually respond to changes going through five different stages; all to be addressed by managers: shock and denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance.

            Group Level Change

Introducing changes on the group level should be supported by line managers and effective communication. Support and commitment need to be provided for teams and team building exercises help groups shift their focus and move into the new direction. While groups usually respond to organizational change with protection and competition, closing ranks, changing allegiances or ownership and demand for a new leadership, resistance can be overcome by supportive and open system leadership models.

            Larger Level System Change

On the larger level, the introduction of change is likely to affect inter-groups because they depend on each other. As the large organizational level is complex, there is a need for an advanced system. Large-group interventions and surveys are the main parts of organization-level change process. Systems also respond differently to change, and this also depends whether it is an evolutionary or revolutionary change. Interorganizational changes show greater signs of resistance, as they are usually the result of an acquisition or merger.


The review chapter of organizational change has identified the processes, management tools and orders of change within businesses. It also provided a framework for addressing challenges and communicating evolutionary or revolutionary changes within all three levels discussed.