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Preparing Tables and Figures, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

A. Tables

A table is used to display data or other information by arranging it in columns and rows.  Examples include, summarized data obtained from your questionnaire or other data collection instrument, results of statistical tests, copies of your data collection instruments, schedules, or any other lists of information.

Features of a Table.  (Table 1 illustrates a table of summary data.)

  1. Each table should be given a table number and title.
  2. The tables should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
  3. The title should be brief but clearly explanatory.
  4. The format of the table heading presented in Table 1 is the preferred format.
  5. The table number should be placed above the title.
  6. The title itself should be centered, and if it occupies more than one line, it should be in the inverted pyramid form.

*Other features to note are: column and category headings are brief, but complete, and that the sample sizes are given.  When referring to a table in the text, you should avoid using “in the table above” or “in the table below.”  Refer to the table by its table number.  For example, a textual reference might read “as shown in Table 3,” or “the employee responses (Table 3) indicate.”  Tables should be placed close to the text discussion for the reader’s ease of reference.

TABLE 1

Analysis of Items 1 Through 4 From

Employee Satisfaction Questionnaire

Item N Mean Mode
Question #1 30 3.5 3
Question #2 35 4.7 4
Question #3 33 2.1 2
Question #4 39 4.8 5

Table 2 illustrates a table containing the results of statistical tests.  Note that both the statistical test values and levels of significance are given.

Other features demonstrated in the table are the general note below the table and the specific note regarding the sample sizes. Whenever all groups are of the same size, it is preferable to indicate the sample sizes by a specific note rather than by adding a separate column to the table.

TABLE 2

T-TEST COMPARISONS BETWEEN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED

EMPLOYEES ON THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS TEST

Group Mean Deviation t Value p
#1 Trained 54.12 5.16 0.13 0.005
#1 Untrained 53.75 4.87

 

#2 Trained 79.70 5.63 13.47 0.001
#2 Untrained 57.64 5.63

Note: Maximum possible score on test = 110.

N = 30 for each group

  1.    In this Applied Research Project Proposal Handbook, all maps, flow charts, diagrams, illustrations, charts (e.g. organizational chart), polygons, curves, histograms, and all other forms of graphs are called figures.

Features of a Figure

Each figure must have

  1. A number and title
  2. Figures are to be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text (TABLES AND FIGURES ARE NUMBERED SEPARATELY).
  3. The title should be brief but explanatory.
  4. Although you may use the same format used in titling tables, the titles of figures are normally placed below the figure. If used below the figure, use the format shown in Figure 1.

Frequency of Responses to Items

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