Back to School Offer

Get 20% of Your First Order amount back in Reward Credits!

Get 20% of Your First Orderback in Rewards

All papers examples
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)
HIRE A WRITER!
Paper Types
Disciplines
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)

Qualitative and Quantitative Research, Research Paper Example

Pages: 3

Words: 912

Research Paper

Introduction

This paper provides a report to the local Police Captains outlining the different characteristics of a number of different research methods:

Key Research Methods

Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research has a number of different focal points but in essence attempts to address a perspective of the attitude of people towards their behavioural traits, their value systems, their lifestyle and culture and their needs or desires.  The diagram to the right illustrates how these concepts inter-relate with one another.   The idea of this research method is to add shape or abstraction to unstructured states.  (QSR International, 2011).

In summary qualitative research seeks to answer questions by the collection of evidence and accompanying research in an orderly and systematic way.  Such finding not having a pre-determined result and may cover research that extends beyond the immediate bounds of the study.  There are a number of different components in terms of how qualitative research studies are conducted but they include: (i) Participant Observation – this is the collection of data or information that occurs from a behavioural context (ii) Interviewing – normally in depth interviews that collect or gather personal data and provide such information as personal experiences, viewpoints or historical data (iii) Focus groups – essentially study groups that tend to elicit data on a broad overview of cultural norm topics.  Such data normally takes the form of field notes, audio tapes, transcripts and more recently notes captured on computer tablets.  (Family Health International, 2011).

Qualitative research methods are fairly flexible and use such items as interviews, surveys, questionnaires etc.   This provides the advantage of comparative analysis between the responses in the data captured but equally the researcher requires an in depth understanding and knowledge of the questions being asked.  With qualitative research the relationships between the researcher and the participants is normally very informal.  Questions can often be very open ended allowing for exploratory research and as such allowing the research to probe more deeply into the responses.

The approach to that of qualitative and quantitative research is very different because of the different views on the world.  The latter being much more rigid and requiring different skill sets from the researcher.  One of the important data collection methods in qualitative research is that of sampling.  There are different types of sampling techniques but these include: purposive sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling.  Purposive sampling being one of the most common techniques that is used.  Quota sampling is really a subset of purposive sampling and looks at the characteristics of the sample under review.   The two approaches are considered to be very similar as they both seek to identify the participant on criteria already selected.

Key Attributes

  • General Framework |  Tends to be very flexible  and explores phenomena
  • Analysis |   Describes relationships and experiences, describes group norms
  • Question Format | Open Ended
  • Data Format | Mainly textual based but includes audio and video tapes
  • Flexibility | Tends to be very flexible and iterative by nature

Quantitative Research Methods

Tends to be scientific based using mathematics and statistics and is really the opposite of the qualitative approach.  In this sense it is rigid and lacks the flexibility of qualitative research.  It often uses the basis of hypothesis as a determinant to prove or disprove as the case may be.  Experiments tend to be around a fairly fixed or standard format approach.  This provides the important context of consistency and helps in making the results free from bias or not skewed by unwelcome variables.

Quantitative research within the context of criminology tends to take on four main strands: (i) Survey Research  (ii) Field Research  (iii) Evaluation Research and (iv) Other quantitative methods.

Quantitative Research in Policing Work

The importance of quantitative research is in the gathering of evidence and reliable data and information.  It is used by criminologists when computing causal statements about computed research variables.  Statistics that are produced are often the starting points when explaining a crime. Data sources include that of

  • Police statistics and state attorney statistics
  • Court statistics on convictions
  • Victim studies
  • Other Studies

Quantitative research has been widely accepted and used in the following important policing areas:-  police behavior,  detection, arrest, service, and violence(Sherman, L. 1980)

Key attributes

  • General Framework |  Rigid and based upon hypothesis formulation
  • Analysis | Quantifies variations, predicts causal relationships, evidence based
  • Question Format | Closed ended
  • Data Format | Numerical data via maths, statistics, experiments
  • Flexibility | Tends to be stable from beginning to end – very structured.

A good qualitative research project sets out a clear statement of purpose.  It needs to set out the central phenomenon that the study will review.  It should provide a framework of the design and narrow the scope down to a single hypothesis or point of discussion.  It also needs to define the variables in the study and the appropriate relationships. (Creswell, J.W. 2009)

Conclusion

Both Qualitative and Quantitative research methods have an important role to play in modern policing investigations and methods.  Qualitative research is particularly useful in the collection of evidence and particularly that where a degree of flexibility is required in probing and gathering datasets.  Quantitative research owing to its scientific and mathematical base is useful for validation of evidence and creating more substantive datasets.  By experimentation underlying theories can either be validated or dismissed.

References

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitave and Mixed methods approaches. London: Sage.

Family Health International. (2011, 11 2). Qualitative research methods overview. Retrieved from Family Health International: http://www.fhi.org/nr/rdonlyres/etl7vogszehu5s4stpzb3tyqlpp7rojv4waq37elpbyei3tgmc4ty6dunbccfzxtaj2rvbaubzmz4f/overview1.pdf

QSR International. (2011, 11 2). What is qualitative research. Retrieved from QSR International: http://www.qsrinternational.com/what-is-qualitative-research.aspx

Sherman, L. W. (1980). Causes of Police Behavior: the Current State of Quantitative Research. Research in Crime Delinquency, Vol 17, 69-100.

Time is precious

Time is precious

don’t waste it!

Get instant essay
writing help!
Get instant essay writing help!
Plagiarism-free guarantee

Plagiarism-free
guarantee

Privacy guarantee

Privacy
guarantee

Secure checkout

Secure
checkout

Money back guarantee

Money back
guarantee

Related Research Paper Samples & Examples

What Can Be Learned From the History of the Marshall Plan About the Importance of the United States, Research Paper Example

Introduction After the ending of the Second World War in 1945 Europe was changed forever and began a transformation of re-construction of buildings, culture and [...]

Pages: 8

Words: 2098

Research Paper

What Is the Future of the Canadian Economy as the Government Ends Stimulus Spending, Research Paper Example

Q1 |  Jim Flaherty, The Federal Minister of Finance for the Canadian Government expressed the following economic ideology on the ending of stimulus spending :-  [...]

Pages: 6

Words: 1595

Research Paper

Relationships Between Nursing Concepts, Research Paper Example

Abstract In the field of nursing, the major components come together in an almost limitless number of ways. The nurse, the environment, the state of [...]

Pages: 4

Words: 1091

Research Paper

PepsiCo Supply Chain, Research Paper Example

Abstract Supply chain management is an ongoing process that must constantly be evaluated and adjusted to enable corporations to improve efficiency and decrease costs.  Currently, [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1432

Research Paper

Hearing-impaired Children, Research Paper Example

When parents have a child with hearing impairment, they are presented with a variety of challenges regarding their child’s social, physical, and academic development.  Hearing [...]

Pages: 10

Words: 2815

Research Paper

Crime Pattern Analysis, Research Paper Example

Abstract Crime Pattern Analysis is discussed within the context of Criminal Justice.  A brief definition exploring the concept of Crime Pattern Analysis and the theoretical [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 782

Research Paper

What Can Be Learned From the History of the Marshall Plan About the Importance of the United States, Research Paper Example

Introduction After the ending of the Second World War in 1945 Europe was changed forever and began a transformation of re-construction of buildings, culture and [...]

Pages: 8

Words: 2098

Research Paper

What Is the Future of the Canadian Economy as the Government Ends Stimulus Spending, Research Paper Example

Q1 |  Jim Flaherty, The Federal Minister of Finance for the Canadian Government expressed the following economic ideology on the ending of stimulus spending :-  [...]

Pages: 6

Words: 1595

Research Paper

Relationships Between Nursing Concepts, Research Paper Example

Abstract In the field of nursing, the major components come together in an almost limitless number of ways. The nurse, the environment, the state of [...]

Pages: 4

Words: 1091

Research Paper

PepsiCo Supply Chain, Research Paper Example

Abstract Supply chain management is an ongoing process that must constantly be evaluated and adjusted to enable corporations to improve efficiency and decrease costs.  Currently, [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1432

Research Paper

Hearing-impaired Children, Research Paper Example

When parents have a child with hearing impairment, they are presented with a variety of challenges regarding their child’s social, physical, and academic development.  Hearing [...]

Pages: 10

Words: 2815

Research Paper

Crime Pattern Analysis, Research Paper Example

Abstract Crime Pattern Analysis is discussed within the context of Criminal Justice.  A brief definition exploring the concept of Crime Pattern Analysis and the theoretical [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 782

Research Paper

Get a Free E-Book ($50 in value)

Get a Free E-Book

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!