Research Question Development, Research Paper Example
Words: 1624Research Paper
Research Approach #1: Based upon the conditions set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act, there are considerable weaknesses associated with current strategies that emphasize test scores and associate these scores with teacher performance. Therefore, it is likely that teacher performance evaluations will suffer as a direct result of poor student test scores. This is an inappropriate use of teacher knowledge and skill; therefore, other methods must be considered in order to capture a greater understanding of teacher-based performance as related to other criteria that will have a greater impact on performance. One such method includes teacher-based observation in the classroom setting in order to determine the impact of performance and technique on student performance, including but not limited to test scores.
Research Approach #2: A broader-scale approach to teacher evaluation is essential in order to determine how teachers have a direct impact on student performance, including test scores. However, using test scores as the sole basis for evaluation is ineffective in supporting teacher-based maturity and growth. A combination of factors must be considered, including the population makeup of the classroom and the resources that are available for classroom instruction, as a means of conducting a more accurate evaluation of teacher performance. This is an important step towards the development of new approaches to enable teachers to recognize how their students are performing and if their techniques might require improvement through additional training and/or education.
Research Approach #3: Evaluating teacher-based performance should not be exclusively associated with test scores, and other strategies to evaluate teachers must be considered that are based upon the preparation of students for college and future careers. It is important for teachers to be evaluated at least partially on the basis of their ability to recognize student strengths, addressing these strengths directly with students, parents, and other colleagues, and providing specific forms of instruction that will be beneficial in supporting these frameworks so that student success beyond test performance is maximized. This will also demonstrate that teachers are willing and able to effectively communicate with students regarding their level of performance in a manner that is conducive to academic progress and greater achievement.
Comparison/Contrast: Based upon these different approaches, it is possible to determine whether or not teachers are adequately preparing students not only for the required tests, but also for their futures. This requires an approach to teacher evaluations that goes above and beyond the requirements of standardized testing and the No Child Left Behind mandate. Each approach has its advantages in providing teachers and school leaders with more accurate representations of performance; however, other measures must also be considered so that teacher evaluations tell the real story. Option #1 will provide school leaders with an opportunity to observe teachers firsthand in order to determine if their techniques are effective, while Option #2 will consider the role of student population and resources in providing effective teacher instruction. Finally, Option #3 will consider other factors that go beyond testing that involve career opportunities and preparation for college. Perhaps the most effective approach, however, is Option #1 because it will reflect the importance of classroom strategies and how they impact student performance in different ways.
Research Questions: Qualitative
Question 1: Given the importance of the No Child Left Behind Act, it is necessary to demonstrate the methods that are commonly used to educate students to meet the required standards (Murnane and Papay, 2010). From this perspective, it is essential to achieve these standards on a consistent basis; however, teacher-based evaluations should not be based solely on the results of these tests. Therefore, one question to consider is as follows: How does classroom instruction and choice of strategy impact teacher performance, and how can different techniques improve teacher performance in the classroom setting, based upon observation of these techniques? There are critical components of classroom instruction that are likely indicators of teacher performance as determined by student responses and academic performance that go beyond standardized testing.
Question 2: Given the nature of modern school environments, it is essential to establish a greater understanding of the challenges and opportunities that are available in the classroom, given the makeup of the student population and its specific needs (Dee et.al, 2010). At the same time, the availability of resources in some school districts is severely limited and limits the ability of some teachers to achieve the desired outcomes of No Child Left Behind (Dee et.al, 2010). Therefore, it is important to determine the following: What is the potential impact of resource allocation on the ability of teachers to provide adequate instruction and preparation for their students, and how does the population makeup play a role in determining whether or not teacher performance is adequate and appropriate for the classroom setting? It is necessary to determine how teachers are impacted by the resources that are available and the type of student population that is being considered in order to determine if teacher-based instruction is effective, given the limitations and constraints of the classroom itself. These elements must be considered because they capture a greater understanding of the issues that are most relevant to teachers as they attempt to meet the standards associated with No Child Left Behind and the impact that this Act has on their students across different population groups. The outcomes are likely to be different when different groups are considered, thereby creating an environment that is unique and conducive to change and progress.
Research Questions: Quantitative
Question 1: Based upon the resources that are available to teachers, there must be considerable attention paid to their perspectives and beliefs regarding classroom instruction in order to capture the true intent of No Child Left Behind (Sunderman et.al, 2004). Therefore, it is important to measure the influence of teacher-based experiences through NCLB testing in the classroom environment (Sunderman et.al, 2004). The question to consider is as follows: How many teachers benefit from the availability of resources and how does this impact NCLB test scores? The hypotheses are as follows: 1) Test scores will increase as a result of these resources; 2) Test scores will be flat; and 3) Test scores will improve, based upon the utilization of resources in the classroom setting. These factors must be considered in order to encourage the development of new perspectives that will capture the spirit of NCLB and determine how teachers utilize the classroom to promote effective outcomes.
Question 2: Teachers must demonstrate their qualifications and ability to instruct students under NCLB on a consistent basis (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2010). Therefore, they must be able to demonstrate their impact on student performance through their teaching strategies and the future direction of teacher selection for the affected classrooms (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2010). Therefore, it is important to determine if teachers are prepared from an education standpoint, i.e. level of education. Therefore, a question to consider is as follows: How does advanced teacher education and choice of curriculum impact performance in the classroom and influence NCLB test scores? The possible hypotheses are as follows: 1) Choice of institution, level of education, and curriculum have no impact on NCLB outcomes; 2) These indicators have a significant impact on outcomes and teacher performance; and 3) These indicators have a limited impact on teacher performance and student-based NCLB outcomes. Each of these factors must be considered in the development of new approaches to facilitate positive results for students and for teacher-based performance in the classroom setting.
From an educator’s point of view, it is imperative to employ teachers who will demonstrate success and achievement in these roles to have a greater impact on student performance. However, teacher-based performance is also critical and promotes the development of new perspectives to enhance teacher performance in relation to the No Child Left Behind Act. This is a challenging premise because many schools have a tendency to evaluate teachers on the basis of student performance on standardized tests, which is not an appropriate use of resources or an effective evaluation mechanism. However, it is important to identify the resources that are necessary for teachers to provide their students with educational guidance that is essential to meet the standards set forth by NCLB. Nonetheless, teachers must be evaluated in the context of other mechanisms that go beyond NCLB-mandated test performance. Teachers should be viewed with a well-rounded approach that supports their continued growth and development, as well as their ability to be effective on many different levels, given the type of student population that they are working with and the resources that are available. These efforts will ensure that student outcomes are at the desired level and that teacher performance is optimal in a variety of settings. It is imperative that teachers are evaluated across a number of different criteria in order to determine their abilities and their strengths in working with students under NCLB mandates. In addition, they must be able to capture the true intent of education across a variety of spectrums, using the resources that are provided and the tools that are available. These efforts will support a continued level of growth and development in the teaching population that will lead to effective student outcomes over time.
Dee, T.S., Jacob, B.A., Hoxby, C.M., and Ladd, H.F. (2010). The impact of No Child LeftBehind on Students, Teachers, and Schools [with Comments and Discussion]. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, retrieved from http://faculty.smu.edu/millimet/classes/eco4361/readings/dee%20et%20al%202010.pdf
Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2010). The quality and distribution of teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 133-150.
Murnane, R.J., and Papay, J.P. (2010). Teachers’ views on No Child Left Behind: support for the principles, concerns about the practices. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 151-166.
Sunderman, G.L., Tracey, C.A., Kim, J., and Orfield, G.. (2004). Listening to teachers: classroom realities and No Child Left Behind. Cambridge: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.
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